Review of Smart City Assessment Tools
2. Literature Review
3. Smart City Concept
4. Smart City Assessment
- City rankings draw public attention to major issues affecting the quality of life of the citizens and promote healthy competition;
- City rankings stimulate a broad discussion on regional development strategies;
- Regional actors are forced to make their decisions transparent and comprehensible;
- Positive changes are also registered outside the region;
- The results in detail may initiate the learning effects of local actors;
- On the other hand, the same report identifies the handicaps of city rankings;
- City rankings tend to neglect complex interrelations in regional development;
- The discussion is mainly focused on the bare rank;
- Long-term development strategies may be threatened;
- Existing stereotypes may be strengthened.
5. SCA Research Review and Identified Gaps
- The extent of inclusion of indicators in the selected tools;
- Distribution pattern of indicators
- Stakeholder engagement;
- Context sensitivity;
- Strategic needs;
- Uncertainty management;
- Interlinkages and interoperability;
- Temporal changes;
- Presentation and communication of the results;
- Action plans.
- There is a lack of balanced distribution of indicators;
- The most tools have not taken measures to engage stakeholders in their development and implementation processes;
- The majority of the selected tools do not consider locally specific conditions;
- Overall, the issue of feasibility has not been well addressed across the tools;
- Only about 25% of the tools provide recommendations on linking results to action plans.
6. Discussion and Conclusions
- There is a lack of balance distribution of indicators;
- The great majority of the SCA tools are static assessments or snapshots;
- They present limitations when comparing cities with different scales;
- In general, they do not measure or evaluate the impacts on the specific local needs or goals of the implementation;
- The engagement of stakeholders in Smart City developments and implementation processes is not evaluated;
- They do not evaluate the contribution to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) or other worldwide targets/goals;
- The feasibility of the implementations is not evaluated.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Cities and city authorities|
|Investors and funding agencies|
|Name, Type and Abbreviation||Main Categories Addressed|
|ISO 37120:2018 sustainable development of communities – indicators for city services and quality of life|
International non mandatory standard
Abbreviation: ISO 37120 
|Economy, education, energy, environment and climate change, finance, governance, health, housing, population and social conditions, recreation, safety, solid waste, sport and culture, telecommunication, transportation, urban/local agriculture and food security, urban planning, wastewater, water|
|ISO/DIS 37122:2019 sustainable development in communities - indicators for Smart cities|
DIS = draft international standard
Abbreviation: ISO 37122 
|ETSI TS 103 463 key performance indicators for sustainable digital multiservice cities|
TS = technical specification
Abbreviation: ETSI indicators 
|ITU-T Y.4901/L.1601 key performance indicators related to the use of information and communication technology in Smart sustainable cities|
Abbreviation: ITU 4901 
|ICT, environmental sustainability, productivity, quality of life, equity and social inclusion, physical infrastructure|
|ITU-T Y.4902/L.1602 key performance indicators related to the sustainability impacts of information and communication technology in Smart sustainable cities|
Abbreviation: ITU 4902 
|Environmental sustainability, productivity, quality of life, equity and social inclusion, physical infrastructure|
|ITU-T Y.4903/L.1603 key performance indicators for Smart sustainable cities to assess the achievement of sustainable development goals|
Abbreviation: ITU 4903 
|Economy, environment, society and culture|
|Sustainable Development Goal 11+ monitoring framework|
UN Inter-Agency Expert Group definition
Abbreviation: UN SDG 11+ indicators 
|UN SDG targets 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11a, 11b, 11c, 1.4, 6.3|
|Lisbon ranking for smart sustainable cities||2019|||
|Smart Sustainable Cities China||2019|||
|Cities in Motion Index||2018||Center for Globalization and Strategy and IESE Business School’s Department of Strategy |
|Global Power City Index||2018||The Mori Memorial Foundation’s Institute for Urban Strategies |
|Innovation Cities™ Index||2018||China Academy of Telecommunication Research and China Communications Standards Association |
|EasyPark||2018||EasyPark Group |
|IoT-Enabled Smart city framework||2018||National Institute of Standards and Technology |
|Smart Cities Council’s tools and frameworks||2018||Smart Cities Council, Australia and New Zealand [70,71]|
|What Works Cities||2018||Bloomberg Philanthropies |
|Code for Smart Communities||2018||Smart Cities Council Australian New Zealand and the Green Building Council of Australia |
|China Smart City Performance||2018||Shen |
|Smart City Governments||2018||Eden Strategy Institute and ONG&ONG Pte Ltd. |
|Assessing Smart City Initiatives for the Mediterranean Region||2017||Universidad Politécnica of Madrid (UPM) [76,77]|
|Smart Cities Index- India||2017||Indian School of Business |
|Juniper Research smart city frameworks||2017||Juniper Research |
|UK Smart Cities Index||2017||Navigant Research |
|CITYkeys||2016||Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) |
|Networked Society City Index||2016||Ericsson in collaboration with Sweco |
|Cities of Opportunity||2016||PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) |
|Community KPIs for the IoT and Smart Cities||2016||Future Everything |
|Gulf States Smart Cities Index||2016||Navigant Research |
|European Digital Cities Index||2016||Nesta |
|Smart City Strategic Growth Map||2016||ESPRESSO, European Commission |
|City IQ Evaluation System||2015||Wu |
|International Data Corporation (IDC) Smart City Analysis||2015||IDC |
|Telecommunication and Standardization Sector of International Telecommunication Union (ITU)||2015||ITU-T Focus Group on Smart Sustainable Cities |
|United Nations Economic Commission for Europe-ITU Smart Sustainable Cities Indicators||2015||UNECE Committee on Housing and Land Management, Environment Agency Austria, and ITU |
|Smart Cities Ranking of European Medium-sized Cities||2014||TU Vienna, in cooperation with the University of Ljubljana and the TU of Delft |
|Boyd-Cohen Smart City Index||2014||Boyd-Cohen |
|Mapping Smart Cities in the EU||2014||RAND Europe, European Union (EU) |
|Smart City Maturity Model and Self-Assessment Tool||2014||The Scottish Government and Scottish Cities Alliance [51,91]|
|Smart City Profiles||2013||Austrian Climate and Energy Fund and Environment Agency Austria |
|United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) smart cities study||2012||City of Bilbao and Committee of Digital and Knowledge-based Cities of UCLG |
|Smart Cities Benchmarking in China||2012||China Academy of Telecommunication Research and China Communications Standards Association |
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Patrão, C.; Moura, P.; Almeida, A.T.d. Review of Smart City Assessment Tools. Smart Cities 2020, 3, 1117-1132. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3040055
Patrão C, Moura P, Almeida ATd. Review of Smart City Assessment Tools. Smart Cities. 2020; 3(4):1117-1132. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3040055Chicago/Turabian Style
Patrão, Carlos, Pedro Moura, and Anibal T. de Almeida. 2020. "Review of Smart City Assessment Tools" Smart Cities 3, no. 4: 1117-1132. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3040055