Next Article in Journal
Multi-Analytical Assessment of Bodied Drying Oil Varnishes and Their Use as Binders in Armour Paints
Previous Article in Journal
The Innovative and State of the Art Public Access Management of Malta’s Underwater Cultural Heritage
Article

Richard the Lionheart and the Ferocious Saladin Face to Face in Arsuf: A Proteomic Study

1
Spectrophon Ltd., Oppenheimer 7, Rehovot 7670107, Israel
2
Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering ‘‘Giulio Natta’’, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Francesco Soldovieri and Arlen F. Chase
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 3382-3401; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040188
Received: 7 August 2021 / Revised: 29 September 2021 / Accepted: 4 October 2021 / Published: 14 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Cultural Heritage)
On 7 September 1191, a fierce battle took place in Arsuf (Palestine) between the Crusaders (marching south towards Jerusalem) led by King Richard the Lionheart and the Ayyubid army commanded by the sultan Saladin. The confrontation lasted for most of the day and terminated with a victory of the Crusaders, proving Richard’s courage as a soldier and his skill as a commander while denting Saladin’s reputation as an invincible warrior. The site (today known as Apollonia) holds the ruins of a Crusader castle perched on a cliff over the sea. We recovered plenty of pottery shards among which we could distinguish those of the Crusaders from those of the Ayyubid army. Extraction of food remnants confirmed that the Crusaders’ diet consisted mostly of pig and sheep meat (together with cheese), with a minimum of carbohydrates (what today would be termed a “ketogenic” diet), whereas the Muslim army consumed mostly carbohydrates (wheat, Triticum durum, Hordeum vulgare), together with fruits and vegetables, with minimal levels of sheep meat and cheese. As a result, the Crusaders’ diet had a positive effect on their slenderness and “cardio”. This might have been why the Ayyubid army lost ca. 10 times more soldiers in Arsuf. Shrewdness of leaders and soldiers’ equipment and willingness to fight are, of course, the main ingredients of victory, but diet too might not have a secondary role and help to tip the balance. View Full-Text
Keywords: Third Crusade; Battle of Arsuf; Richard the Lionheart; Salah ad-Din; Crusader’s diet; Muslim diet Third Crusade; Battle of Arsuf; Richard the Lionheart; Salah ad-Din; Crusader’s diet; Muslim diet
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zilberstein, G.; Zilberstein, S.; Righetti, P.G. Richard the Lionheart and the Ferocious Saladin Face to Face in Arsuf: A Proteomic Study. Heritage 2021, 4, 3382-3401. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040188

AMA Style

Zilberstein G, Zilberstein S, Righetti PG. Richard the Lionheart and the Ferocious Saladin Face to Face in Arsuf: A Proteomic Study. Heritage. 2021; 4(4):3382-3401. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040188

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zilberstein, Gleb, Svetlana Zilberstein, and Pier G. Righetti 2021. "Richard the Lionheart and the Ferocious Saladin Face to Face in Arsuf: A Proteomic Study" Heritage 4, no. 4: 3382-3401. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040188

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop