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Article

Preliminary Thermal Investigations of Calcium Antimonate Opacified White Glass Tesserae

1
IRAMAT-CEB, UMR5060, CNRS/Université d’Orléans, 3D rue de la Férollerie, CS 60061, 45071 Orléans CEDEX 2, France
2
Dipartimento di Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari”, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Pietro Vivarelli 10, 41125 Modena, Italy
3
Departamento de Historia Antigua, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Av. de los Altares s/n, 16071 Cuenca, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 549-560; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3020032
Received: 11 May 2020 / Revised: 23 June 2020 / Accepted: 24 June 2020 / Published: 26 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Archaeological Heritage)
Calcium antimonate (in the hexagonal or cubic form) dispersed in the glass matrix is an artificially synthesized phase commonly documented as opacifier for white glasses during the Roman period. Glasses of this type occasionally contain variable amounts of lead oxide. There is no consensus about the origin and role of the lead component in white glasses, whether it was functional to modify the workability of the glass and/or to help the precipitation of the particles, or whether it was an unintentional pollutant introduced with the raw materials. A group of lead and lead-free white mosaic tesserae from the fourth-century CE villa of Noheda in Spain were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) to evaluate the impact of variable amounts of lead oxide in the precipitation of calcium antimonate on the viscosity of the glass. The analyzed glasses show thermal events that have been related to the composition of the glass via multicomponent linear regression model. CaSb2O6 and Ca2Sb2O7 formed in the glass during the cooling phase and the glass was not reheated. Lead oxide influences the thermal behavior of the glass, lowering the onset temperatures of all the events, implying a more cost-effective production process. We propose that lead was added intentionally or that lead-bearing raw materials were selected specifically by the ancient glass artisans. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium antimonate; Roman glass technology; glass opacification; DSC; high temperature XRD calcium antimonate; Roman glass technology; glass opacification; DSC; high temperature XRD
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    Doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/min10030272
    Description: Fig. S1-10 DSC curves obtained on the samples analysed in this study. Tab. S1 Average LA-ICP-MS data of glass standards in comparison with published values for Corning glass standards A, B, D, and NIST 612 [published in 38].
MDPI and ACS Style

Boschetti, C.; Leonelli, C.; Rosa, R.; Romagnoli, M.; Valero Tévar, M.Á.; Schibille, N. Preliminary Thermal Investigations of Calcium Antimonate Opacified White Glass Tesserae. Heritage 2020, 3, 549-560. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3020032

AMA Style

Boschetti C, Leonelli C, Rosa R, Romagnoli M, Valero Tévar MÁ, Schibille N. Preliminary Thermal Investigations of Calcium Antimonate Opacified White Glass Tesserae. Heritage. 2020; 3(2):549-560. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3020032

Chicago/Turabian Style

Boschetti, Cristina; Leonelli, Cristina; Rosa, Roberto; Romagnoli, Marcello; Valero Tévar, Miguel Á.; Schibille, Nadine. 2020. "Preliminary Thermal Investigations of Calcium Antimonate Opacified White Glass Tesserae" Heritage 3, no. 2: 549-560. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3020032

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