The urban climatology consists not only of the urban canopy temperature but also of wind regime and boundary layer evolution among other secondary variables. The energetic input and response of urbanized areas is rather different to rural or forest areas. In this paper, we outline the physical characteristics of the urban canopy that make its energy balance depart from that of vegetated areas and change local climatology. Among the several canopy characteristics, we focus on the aspect ratio
and its effects. The literature and methods of retrieving meteorological quantities in urban areas are reviewed and a number of physical analyzes from conceptual or numerical models are presented. In particular, the existence of a maximum value for the urban heat island intensity is discussed comprehensively. Changes in the local flow and boundary layer evolution due to urbanization are also discussed. The presence of vegetation and water bodies in urban areas are reviewed. The main conclusions are as follows: for increasing
, the urban heat island intensity is likely to attain a peak around
and decrease for
; the temperature at the pedestrian level follows similar behavior; the urban boundary layer grows slowly, which in combination with low wind, can worsen pollution dispersion.
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