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History of Non-Fatal Physical Assault Is Associated with Premature Mortality for Whites but Not Blacks

by Shervin Assari 1,2,* and Jalal Haidar 3
1
Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2700, USA
2
Center for Research on Ethnicity, Culture and Health, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2700, USA
3
Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2700, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J 2018, 1(1), 81-93; https://doi.org/10.3390/j1010009
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
Exposure to trauma increases the long-term risk of mortality, and experiencing non-fatal physical assault is not an exception. To better understand population heterogeneity in this link, the current study explored Black–White differences in the association between history of non-fatal physical assault and risk of all-cause mortality over a 25-year period in the United States. Data came from the Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL) study that followed 3617 non-institutionalized respondents for up to 25 years. History of non-fatal physical assault at baseline was the predictor. Outcome was time to death due to all-cause mortality during follow-up from baseline (1986) to follow-up (2011). Confounders included gender, age, and baseline socio-economic status (education and income), health behaviors (smoking and drinking), and health status (chronic medical conditions, self-rated health, and body mass index). Race was the moderator. Cox regressions were used for multi-variable analysis. History of non-fatal physical assault at baseline was associated with an increased risk of mortality, above and beyond baseline socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and health status. Race interacted with history of non-fatal physical assault on mortality, suggesting a stronger effect for Whites compared to Blacks. In race-specific models, history of non-fatal physical assault was associated with risk of mortality for Whites but not Blacks. The current study showed that experiencing non-fatal physical assault increases the risk of premature death above and beyond demographics, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and health status. Experiencing non-fatal physical assault may have a larger effect on premature mortality among Whites than Blacks. Future research is needed on how Blacks and Whites differ in the health consequences of social adversities. View Full-Text
Keywords: trauma; assault; ethnic groups; all-cause mortality; race; blacks trauma; assault; ethnic groups; all-cause mortality; race; blacks
MDPI and ACS Style

Assari, S.; Haidar, J. History of Non-Fatal Physical Assault Is Associated with Premature Mortality for Whites but Not Blacks. J 2018, 1, 81-93.

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