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Constraints to Synergistic Fe Mobilization from Calcareous Soil by a Phytosiderophore and a Reductant

Department of Environmental Geosciences and Environmental Science Research Network, University of Vienna, Althansstrasse 14 (UZA II), 1090 Vienna, Austria
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current Address: Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Princetonlaan 8a, 3584 CB Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Soil Syst. 2018, 2(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/soilsystems2040067
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 16 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron and Manganese Biogeochemical Cycling in Soils)
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Abstract

Synergistic effects between ligand- and reductant-based Fe acquisition strategies can enhance the mobilization of Fe, but also of competing metals from soil. For phytosiderophores, this may alter the time and concentration window of Fe uptake during which plants can benefit from elevated Fe concentrations. We examined how the size of this window is affected by the ligand and reductant concentration and by non-simultaneous addition. To this end, a series of kinetic batch experiments was conducted with a calcareous clay soil to which the phytosiderophore 2′-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) and the reductant ascorbate were added at various concentrations, either simultaneously or with a one- or two-day lag time. Both simultaneous and non-simultaneous addition of the reductant and the phytosiderophore induced synergistic Fe mobilization. Furthermore, initial Fe mobilization rates increased with increasing reductant and phytosiderophore concentrations. However, the duration of the synergistic effect and the window of Fe uptake decreased with increasing reductant concentration due to enhanced competitive mobilization of other metals. Rate laws accurately describing synergistic mobilization of Fe and other metals from soil were parameterized. Synergistic Fe mobilization may be vital for the survival of plants and microorganisms in soils of low Fe availability. However, in order to optimally benefit from these synergistic effects, exudation of ligands and reductants in the rhizosphere need to be carefully matched. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fe acquisition; ligand; metal mobilization; phytosiderophore; reductant; soil; synergistic effect; metal exchange; window of Fe uptake Fe acquisition; ligand; metal mobilization; phytosiderophore; reductant; soil; synergistic effect; metal exchange; window of Fe uptake
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Schenkeveld, W.D.C.; Kraemer, S.M. Constraints to Synergistic Fe Mobilization from Calcareous Soil by a Phytosiderophore and a Reductant. Soil Syst. 2018, 2, 67.

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