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Open AccessArticle

Release and Biomethylation of Antimony in Shooting Range Soils upon Flooding

1
Institute of Geography, Universität Bern, Hallerstrasse 12, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
2
Institute of Geography and Geoecology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Reinhard-Baumeister-Platz 1, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Soil Syst. 2018, 2(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/soilsystems2020034
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 1 June 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Processes Controlling Contaminant Dynamics)
Antimony (Sb) is an understudied pollutant with potentially toxic effects at particularly low concentrations. The fate of Sb in the environment is complicated because of its many chemical forms at varying oxidation states. Here, we validated an extraction method and an analytical technique to quantify inorganic and methylated Sb in bulk soil and soil solution. We identified and quantified trimethylantimony (TMSb) in shooting range soils for the first time, up to a concentration of 1.35 mg kg−1. Then, we evaluated the release of Sb species from soil to soil solution as well as the influence of manure addition upon flooding in an incubation experiment with fresh soils from shooting ranges. This incubation experiment showed an immediate and exhaustive Sb release into the soil solution (within 6 h), reaching over 3000 μg L−1 for one site, followed by a sharp decline and again a slow increase at the end of the incubation in Sb concentrations in the soil solution for two of the three sites. TMSb was also formed in the soil solution after 4 to 10 days. High dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the dissolution of Fe- and Mn-(oxy-)hydroxides were the main drivers of Sb release, while the addition of organic matter (OM) drove TMSb formation. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimony; trimethylantimony; biomethylation; shooting range; HPLC–ICP–MS; mobility antimony; trimethylantimony; biomethylation; shooting range; HPLC–ICP–MS; mobility
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grob, M.; Wilcke, W.; Mestrot, A. Release and Biomethylation of Antimony in Shooting Range Soils upon Flooding. Soil Syst. 2018, 2, 34.

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