- Development of processing routes associated to specific functional properties, morphologies, or applications (tubes, membranes, beads, thin films, etc.).
- Assessment of functional properties, in particular in the application environment. However, little attention has been paid so far to reproducibility and reliability.
- Fundamental understanding and control of the process, in particular for the control of textures and of composites microstructures: the distribution and organization of particles (in particular anisotropic particles), the phase distribution, the development of microstructural defects in ice-templated structures. The development of novel strategies, such as reported in the review paper of Niksiar et al. , are useful to better understand the physics of ice-templating, which will eventually lead to a better control of the materials processes and properties.
- Combination of ice-templating with traditional ceramic processing and scale up. Although several processing routes have been successfully combined with ice-templating (tape-casting , spray drying), many routes can still be explored. Very little effort has been paid to investigate scale-up of the current ice-templating routes, although this will be one of the keys for a successful transfer of these approaches from the lab to successful industrial applications.
Conflicts of Interest
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