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Ceramics 2018, 1(1), 65-82; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics1010007

Deriving Principles of the Freeze-Foaming Process by Nondestructive CT Macrostructure Analyses on Hydroxyapatite Foams

1
Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, IKTS, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden, Germany
2
Institute of Lightweight Engineering and Polymer Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, Holbeinstr. 3, 01307 Dresden, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Routes of Ceramics for Functional Applications)
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Abstract

Freeze Foaming is a direct foaming method that aims at manufacturing ceramic cellular scaffolds for diverse applications. Next to porous structures for a potential use as refractories, the focus lies on potential bone replacement material. The main challenge of this foaming method is to achieve a homogeneous and predictable pore morphology. That is why, in a current project, the authors report on the pore morphology formation and evolution of the foaming process by means of nondestructive testing. This contribution primarily compares the effect of the suspension’s temperature on the resulting foam structure (foaming at 5 and 40 °C). As a basis for computed tomographic analysis, a stable and reproducible model suspension was developed that resulted in reproducible foam structures. Characterized by viscosity, foam structure analyses and foaming rate, the resulting Freeze Foams became adjustable with regards to their porosity and pore shape/size. Under certain conditions, we succeeded in achieving a relatively homogeneous pore structure, as proven by computed tomography-derived quantitative analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Freeze Foaming; bioceramics; foaming process; computed tomography; none destructive testing; cellular ceramics Freeze Foaming; bioceramics; foaming process; computed tomography; none destructive testing; cellular ceramics
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Ahlhelm, M.; Werner, D.; Kaube, N.; Maier, J.; Abel, J.; Behnisch, T.; Moritz, T.; Michaelis, A.; Gude, M. Deriving Principles of the Freeze-Foaming Process by Nondestructive CT Macrostructure Analyses on Hydroxyapatite Foams. Ceramics 2018, 1, 65-82.

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