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Adv. Respir. Med., Volume 92, Issue 3 (June 2024) – 6 articles

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13 pages, 2856 KiB  
Systematic Review
Lung Ultrasonography Accuracy for Diagnosis of Adult Pneumonia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Dev Desai, Abhijay B. Shah, Joseph Rem C. Dela, Tayba A. Mugibel, Khalid M. Sumaily, Essa M. Sabi, Ahmed H. Mujamammi, Maria E. Malafi, Sara A. Alkaff, Thurya A. Alwahbi, Jamal O. Bahabara and Lotfi S. Bin Dahman
Adv. Respir. Med. 2024, 92(3), 241-253; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm92030024 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1103
Abstract
Background: Pneumonia is a ubiquitous health condition with severe outcomes. The advancement of ultrasonography techniques allows its application in evaluating pulmonary diseases, providing safer and accessible bedside therapeutic decisions compared to chest X-ray and chest computed tomography (CT) scan. Because of its aforementioned [...] Read more.
Background: Pneumonia is a ubiquitous health condition with severe outcomes. The advancement of ultrasonography techniques allows its application in evaluating pulmonary diseases, providing safer and accessible bedside therapeutic decisions compared to chest X-ray and chest computed tomography (CT) scan. Because of its aforementioned benefits, we aimed to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasound (LUS) for pneumonia in adults. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed of Medline, Cochrane and Crossref, independently by two authors. The selection of studies proceeded based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria without restrictions to particular study designs, language or publication dates and was followed by data extraction. The gold standard reference in the included studies was chest X-ray/CT scan or both. Results: Twenty-nine (29) studies containing 6702 participants were included in our meta-analysis. Pooled sensitivity, specificity and PPV were 92% (95% CI: 91–93%), 94% (95% CI: 94 to 95%) and 93% (95% CI: 89 to 96%), respectively. Pooled positive and negative likelihood ratios were 16 (95% CI: 14 to 19) and 0.08 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.09). The area under the ROC curve of LUS was 0. 9712. Conclusions: LUS has high diagnostic accuracy in adult pneumonia. Its contribution could form an optimistic clue in future updates considering this condition. Full article
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11 pages, 556 KiB  
Article
Extracellular Water Ratio and Phase Angle as Predictors of Exacerbation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
by An-Ni Xie, Wen-Jian Huang and Chih-Yuan Ko
Adv. Respir. Med. 2024, 92(3), 230-240; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm92030023 - 31 May 2024
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Abstract
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by high-energy metabolism, often leads to malnutrition and is linked to exacerbations. This study investigates the association of malnutrition-related body composition and handgrip strength changes with exacerbation frequencies in COPD patients. Methods: We analyzed 77 acute [...] Read more.
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by high-energy metabolism, often leads to malnutrition and is linked to exacerbations. This study investigates the association of malnutrition-related body composition and handgrip strength changes with exacerbation frequencies in COPD patients. Methods: We analyzed 77 acute exacerbation COPD (AECOPD) patients and 82 stable COPD patients, categorized as frequent and infrequent exacerbators. Assessments included body composition, handgrip strength, nutritional risk, dyspnea scale, and COPD assessment. Results: Among AECOPD patients, there were 22 infrequent and 55 frequent exacerbators. Infrequent exacerbators showed better muscle parameters, extracellular water ratio, phase angle, and handgrip strength. Significant differences in intracellular water, total cellular water, protein, and body cell mass were observed between groups. Logistic regression indicated that extracellular water ratio (OR = 1.086) and phase angle (OR = 0.396) were independently associated with exacerbation risk. Thresholds for exacerbation risk were identified as 0.393 for extracellular water ratio and 4.85° for phase angle. In stable COPD, 13 frequent and 69 infrequent exacerbators were compared, showing no significant differences in weight, muscle, and adipose parameters, but significant differences in extracellular water ratio, phase angle, and handgrip strength. Conclusions: These findings suggest that increased exacerbations in COPD patients correlate with higher extracellular water ratios and lower phase angles. Full article
12 pages, 717 KiB  
Article
Cross-Reactivity of Ragweed Pollen Calcium-Binding Proteins and IgE Sensitization in a Ragweed-Allergic Population from Western Romania
by Lauriana-Eunice Zbîrcea, Maria-Roxana Buzan, Manuela Grijincu, Tudor-Paul Tamaș, Constantina Bianca Vulpe, Ioan Huțu, Virgil Păunescu, Carmen Panaitescu and Kuan-Wei Chen
Adv. Respir. Med. 2024, 92(3), 218-229; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm92030022 - 30 May 2024
Viewed by 284
Abstract
Ragweed pollen allergy is the most common seasonal allergy in western Romania. Prolonged exposure to ragweed pollen may induce sensitization to pan-allergens such as calcium-binding proteins (polcalcins) and progression to more severe symptoms. We aimed to detect IgE sensitization to recombinant Amb a [...] Read more.
Ragweed pollen allergy is the most common seasonal allergy in western Romania. Prolonged exposure to ragweed pollen may induce sensitization to pan-allergens such as calcium-binding proteins (polcalcins) and progression to more severe symptoms. We aimed to detect IgE sensitization to recombinant Amb a 9 and Amb a 10 in a Romanian population, to assess their potential clinical relevance and cross-reactivity, as well as to investigate the relation with clinical symptoms. rAmb a 9 and rAmb a 10 produced in Escherichia coli were used to detect specific IgE in sera from 87 clinically characterized ragweed-allergic patients in ELISA, for basophil activation experiments and rabbit immunization. Rabbit rAmb a 9- and rAmb a 10-specific sera were used to detect possible cross-reactivity with rArt v 5 and reactivity towards ragweed and mugwort pollen extracts. The results showed an IgE reactivity of 25% to rAmb a 9 and 35% to rAmb a 10. rAmb a 10 induced basophil degranulation in three out of four patients tested. Moreover, polcalcin-negative patients reported significantly more skin symptoms, whereas polcalcin-positive patients tended to report more respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, both rabbit antisera showed low reactivity towards extracts and showed high reactivity to rArt v 5, suggesting strong cross-reactivity. Our study indicated that recombinant ragweed polcalcins might be considered for molecular diagnosis. Full article
16 pages, 1347 KiB  
Article
RNA Polymerase Inhibitor Enisamium for Treatment of Moderate COVID-19 Patients: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter, Double-Blind Phase 3 Clinical Trial
by Olga Holubovska, Pavlo Babich, Alla Mironenko, Jens Milde, Yuriy Lebed, Holger Stammer, Lutz Mueller, Aartjan J. W. te Velthuis, Victor Margitich and Andrew Goy
Adv. Respir. Med. 2024, 92(3), 202-217; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm92030021 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 835
Abstract
Enisamium is an orally available therapeutic that inhibits influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2 replication. We evaluated the clinical efficacy of enisamium treatment combined with standard care in adult, hospitalized patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring external oxygen. Hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were [...] Read more.
Enisamium is an orally available therapeutic that inhibits influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2 replication. We evaluated the clinical efficacy of enisamium treatment combined with standard care in adult, hospitalized patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring external oxygen. Hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were randomly assigned to receive either enisamium (500 mg per dose, four times a day) or a placebo. The primary outcome was an improvement of at least two points on an eight-point severity rating (SR) scale within 29 days of randomization. We initially set out to study the effect of enisamium on patients with a baseline SR of 4 or 5. However, because the study was started early in the COVID-19 pandemic, and COVID-19 had been insufficiently studied at the start of our study, an interim analysis was performed alongside a conditional power analysis in order to ensure patient safety and assess whether the treatment was likely to be beneficial for one or both groups. Following this analysis, a beneficial effect was observed for patients with an SR of 4 only, i.e., patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplementary oxygen. The study was continued for these COVID-19 patients. Overall, a total of 592 patients were enrolled and randomized between May 2020 and March 2021. Patients with a baseline SR of 4 were divided into two groups: 142 (49.8%) were assigned to the enisamium group and 143 (50.2%) to the placebo group. An analysis of the population showed that if patients were treated within 4 days of the onset of COVID-19 symptoms (n = 33), the median time to improvement was 8 days for the enisamium group and 13 days for the placebo group (p = 0.005). For patients treated within 10 days of the onset of COVID-19 symptoms (n = 154), the median time to improvement was 10 days for the enisamium group and 12 days for the placebo group (p = 0.002). Our findings suggest that enisamium is safe to use with COVID-19 patients, and that the observed clinical benefit of enisamium is worth reporting and studying in detail. Full article
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12 pages, 479 KiB  
Review
Diagnostic Value of Imaging and Serological Biomarkers in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis
by Yuehong Li and Guopeng Xu
Adv. Respir. Med. 2024, 92(3), 190-201; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm92030020 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 741
Abstract
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of an unknown aetiology. It can exist in many organs. Pulmonary and intrathoracic lymph nodes are most commonly involved. Lung sarcoidosis is uncommon in Asia. However, due to the large population of our country and the development [...] Read more.
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of an unknown aetiology. It can exist in many organs. Pulmonary and intrathoracic lymph nodes are most commonly involved. Lung sarcoidosis is uncommon in Asia. However, due to the large population of our country and the development of bronchoscopy, percutaneous lung puncture, and other medical technologies, the number of pulmonary sarcoidosis patients is on the rise. Pulmonary sarcoidosis patients have no obvious symptoms in the early stage, and the clinical manifestations in the later stage may vary from person to person. Eventually, the disease progresses to life-threatening pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis should receive a timely diagnosis. In recent years, the imaging features and serologic biomarkers of pulmonary sarcoidosis have been continuously studied. The diagnostic value of imaging and serologic biomarkers for pulmonary sarcoidosis is summarized below. Full article
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15 pages, 797 KiB  
Systematic Review
Nurses’ Role in the Control and Treatment of Asthma in Adults: A Systematic Literature Review
by Pedro Alexandre-Sousa, Nuno Sousa, Joana Bento, Filipa Azevedo, Maíra Assis and José Mendes
Adv. Respir. Med. 2024, 92(3), 175-189; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm92030019 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 961
Abstract
Bronchial asthma is a chronic pathology and a global public health problem. However, asthma can be controlled and treated for the most part by patients, so the Portuguese General Directorate of Health recommends shared medical appointments in primary health care (PHC). The present [...] Read more.
Bronchial asthma is a chronic pathology and a global public health problem. However, asthma can be controlled and treated for the most part by patients, so the Portuguese General Directorate of Health recommends shared medical appointments in primary health care (PHC). The present study aims to identify the role of PHC nurses in the control and treatment of asthma in adults. Using the MeSH platform, the following descriptors were validated: asthma, nurses, adults. An individual search was carried out in the following databases: CINAHL (ESBSCO host), MEDLINE (Pubmed host), Web of Science, and Scopus. Out of a total of 280 publications, 79 of which were duplicates and 185 publications which did not meet the inclusion criteria, 16 publications remained readable. Of the eligible articles, there were 13 specialist reports, one mixed study, one quasi-experimental study, and one randomized trial. Education was the intervention most identified in the scientific evidence analyzed, and patient assessment, application of an asthma control questionnaire, verification and training of inhalation technique, empowerment for self-management of the disease, support, promotion of seasonal influenza vaccination, and use of written action plans were also identified. The results reveal that, although the scientific evidence on the intervention of these professionals is poorly developed, nurses play a crucial role in the control and treatment of asthma. The scientific evidence analyzed allowed the identification of interventions that can help the organization of a nursing health appointment, providing nurses with a crucial role in the control and treatment of asthma in adults in the context of PHC. Full article
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