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Article

Materials and Manufacturing Techniques for Polymeric and Ceramic Scaffolds Used in Implant Dentistry

1
Center of Dental Medicine, Division of Dental Biomaterials, Clinic for Reconstructive Dentistry, University of Zürich, Plattenstrasse 11, CH-8032 Zürich, Switzerland
2
Technological Center, Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil
3
Technological Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil
4
Health Sciences Center, Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesco Tornabene
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5030078
Received: 19 February 2021 / Revised: 1 March 2021 / Accepted: 8 March 2021 / Published: 11 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramic Composites)
Preventive and regenerative techniques have been suggested to minimize the aesthetic and functional effects caused by intraoral bone defects, enabling the installation of dental implants. Among them, porous three-dimensional structures (scaffolds) composed mainly of bioabsorbable ceramics, such as hydroxyapatite (HAp) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) stand out for reducing the use of autogenous, homogeneous, and xenogenous bone grafts and their unwanted effects. In order to stimulate bone formation, biodegradable polymers such as cellulose, collagen, glycosaminoglycans, polylactic acid (PLA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL), polyglycolic acid (PGA), polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB), polypropylenofumarate (PPF), polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), and poly L-co-D, L lactic acid (PLDLA) have also been studied. More recently, hybrid scaffolds can combine the tunable macro/microporosity and osteoinductive properties of ceramic materials with the chemical/physical properties of biodegradable polymers. Various methods are suggested for the manufacture of scaffolds with adequate porosity, such as conventional and additive manufacturing techniques and, more recently, 3D and 4D printing. The purpose of this manuscript is to review features concerning biomaterials, scaffolds macro and microstructure, fabrication techniques, as well as the potential interaction of the scaffolds with the human body. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomaterials; bone grafts; bone repair; dental implants; scaffolds biomaterials; bone grafts; bone repair; dental implants; scaffolds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Özcan, M.; Hotza, D.; Fredel, M.C.; Cruz, A.; Volpato, C.A.M. Materials and Manufacturing Techniques for Polymeric and Ceramic Scaffolds Used in Implant Dentistry. J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5, 78. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5030078

AMA Style

Özcan M, Hotza D, Fredel MC, Cruz A, Volpato CAM. Materials and Manufacturing Techniques for Polymeric and Ceramic Scaffolds Used in Implant Dentistry. Journal of Composites Science. 2021; 5(3):78. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5030078

Chicago/Turabian Style

Özcan, Mutlu, Dachamir Hotza, Márcio Celso Fredel, Ariadne Cruz, and Claudia Angela Maziero Volpato. 2021. "Materials and Manufacturing Techniques for Polymeric and Ceramic Scaffolds Used in Implant Dentistry" Journal of Composites Science 5, no. 3: 78. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5030078

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