Next Article in Journal
Batch Processing in Preassembled Die Sets—A New Process Design for Isothermal Forging of Titanium Aluminides
Previous Article in Journal
Pearl-Chain Formation of Discontinuous Carbon Fiber under an Electrical Field
Open AccessArticle

Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Water-Atomized Iron-Based Powders: Process Optimization

Department of Mechanical Engineering, École de technologie supérieure, 1100 Notre-Dame Street West, Montreal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada
Research and Development, Rio Tinto Metal Powders, 1655, route Marie-Victorin, Sorel-Tracy, QC J3R 4R4, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2017, 1(2), 23;
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 17 December 2017
PDF [7464 KB, uploaded 19 December 2017]


The laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) technology was adapted for use with non-spherical low-cost water-atomized iron powders. A simplified numerical and experimental modeling approach was applied to determine—in a first approximation—the operation window for the selected powder in terms of laser power, scanning speed, hatching space, and layer thickness. The operation window, delimited by a build rate ranging from 4 to 25 cm3/h, and a volumetric energy density ranging from 50 to 190 J/mm3, was subsequently optimized to improve the density, the mechanical properties, and the surface roughness of the manufactured specimens. Standard L-PBF-built specimens were subjected to microstructural (porosity, grain size) and metrological (accuracy, shrinkage, minimum wall thickness, surface roughness) analyses and mechanical testing (three-point bending and tensile tests). The results of the microstructural, metrological and mechanical characterizations of the L-PBF-built specimens subjected to stress relieve annealing and hot isostatic pressing were then compared with those obtained with conventional pressing-sintering technology. Finally, by using an energy density of 70 J/mm3 and a build rate of 9 cm3/h, it was possible to manufacture 99.8%-dense specimens with an ultimate strength of 330 MPa and an elongation to failure of 30%, despite the relatively poor circularity of the powder used. View Full-Text
Keywords: additive manufacturing; laser powder bed fusion; process optimization; water atomized; iron based powder additive manufacturing; laser powder bed fusion; process optimization; water atomized; iron based powder

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Letenneur, M.; Brailovski, V.; Kreitcberg, A.; Paserin, V.; Bailon-Poujol, I. Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Water-Atomized Iron-Based Powders: Process Optimization. J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2017, 1, 23.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. EISSN 2504-4494 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top