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Article

Quantifying the Effects of Vibration on Medicines in Transit Caused by Fixed-Wing and Multi-Copter Drones

1
Transportation Research Group, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
2
Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
3
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King’s College London, London SE1 9NH, UK
4
tec-connection, D78467 Konstanz, Germany
5
Motion Robotics, Southampton SO30 3DS, UK
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Computational Engineering and Design Research Group, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Diego González-Aguilera
Drones 2021, 5(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/drones5010022
Received: 4 February 2021 / Revised: 3 March 2021 / Accepted: 11 March 2021 / Published: 13 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drones for Medicine Delivery and Healthcare Logistics)
The concept of transporting medical products by drone is gaining a lot of interest amongst the medical and logistics communities. Such innovation has generated several questions, a key one being the potential effects of flight on the stability of medical products. The aims of this study were to quantify the vibration present within drone flight, study its effect on the quality of the medical insulin through live flight trials, and compare the effects of vibration from drone flight with traditional road transport. Three trials took place in which insulin ampoules and mock blood stocks were transported to site and flown using industry standard packaging by a fixed-wing or a multi-copter drone. Triaxial vibration measurements were acquired, both in-flight and during road transit, from which overall levels and frequency spectra were derived. British Pharmacopeia quality tests were undertaken in which the UV spectra of the flown insulin samples were compared to controls of known turbidity. In-flight vibration levels in both the drone types exceeded road induced levels by up to a factor of three, and predominant vibration occurred at significantly higher frequencies. Flown samples gave clear insulin solutions that met the British Pharmacopoeia specification, and no aggregation of insulin was detected. View Full-Text
Keywords: drone; UAV; vibration; insulin; medicine; logistics; healthcare; dangerous goods; blood drone; UAV; vibration; insulin; medicine; logistics; healthcare; dangerous goods; blood
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oakey, A.; Waters, T.; Zhu, W.; Royall, P.G.; Cherrett, T.; Courtney, P.; Majoe, D.; Jelev, N. Quantifying the Effects of Vibration on Medicines in Transit Caused by Fixed-Wing and Multi-Copter Drones. Drones 2021, 5, 22. https://doi.org/10.3390/drones5010022

AMA Style

Oakey A, Waters T, Zhu W, Royall PG, Cherrett T, Courtney P, Majoe D, Jelev N. Quantifying the Effects of Vibration on Medicines in Transit Caused by Fixed-Wing and Multi-Copter Drones. Drones. 2021; 5(1):22. https://doi.org/10.3390/drones5010022

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oakey, Andrew; Waters, Tim; Zhu, Wanqing; Royall, Paul G.; Cherrett, Tom; Courtney, Patrick; Majoe, Dennis; Jelev, Nickolay. 2021. "Quantifying the Effects of Vibration on Medicines in Transit Caused by Fixed-Wing and Multi-Copter Drones" Drones 5, no. 1: 22. https://doi.org/10.3390/drones5010022

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