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Cattle Detection Using Oblique UAV Images

1
Embrapa Informatica Agropecuaria, Campinas 13083-886, Brazil
2
Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste, Sao Carlos 13560-970, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Drones 2020, 4(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/drones4040075
Received: 10 November 2020 / Revised: 2 December 2020 / Accepted: 3 December 2020 / Published: 8 December 2020
The evolution in imaging technologies and artificial intelligence algorithms, coupled with improvements in UAV technology, has enabled the use of unmanned aircraft in a wide range of applications. The feasibility of this kind of approach for cattle monitoring has been demonstrated by several studies, but practical use is still challenging due to the particular characteristics of this application, such as the need to track mobile targets and the extensive areas that need to be covered in most cases. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a tilted angle to increase the area covered by each image. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (Xception architecture) were used to generate the models for animal detection. Three experiments were carried out: (1) five different sizes for the input images were tested to determine which yields the highest accuracies; (2) detection accuracies were calculated for different distances between animals and sensor, in order to determine how distance influences detectability; and (3) animals that were completely missed by the detection process were individually identified and the cause for those errors were determined, revealing some potential topics for further research. Experimental results indicate that oblique images can be successfully used under certain conditions, but some practical limitations need to be addressed in order to make this approach appealing. View Full-Text
Keywords: convolutional neural network; unmanned aerial vehicles; deep learning convolutional neural network; unmanned aerial vehicles; deep learning
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MDPI and ACS Style

Barbedo, J.G.A.; Koenigkan, L.V.; Santos, P.M. Cattle Detection Using Oblique UAV Images. Drones 2020, 4, 75. https://doi.org/10.3390/drones4040075

AMA Style

Barbedo JGA, Koenigkan LV, Santos PM. Cattle Detection Using Oblique UAV Images. Drones. 2020; 4(4):75. https://doi.org/10.3390/drones4040075

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barbedo, Jayme G.A.; Koenigkan, Luciano V.; Santos, Patrícia M. 2020. "Cattle Detection Using Oblique UAV Images" Drones 4, no. 4: 75. https://doi.org/10.3390/drones4040075

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