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Ecotoxicity of EAN and Doped EAN Ionic Liquids

NaFoMat Group, Applied Physic and Particle Physics Departments, University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida, 15782 Santiago, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Presented at the 22nd International Electronic Conference on Synthetic Organic Chemistry, 15 November–15 December 2018; Available Online:
Proceedings 2019, 9(1), 56;
Published: 14 November 2018
PDF [292 KB, uploaded 5 May 2019]


The ecotoxicity of a nitrate-based ionic liquid (IL) and saturated mixtures with four nitrate salts towards the bioluminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri, were tested in this work, using the Microtox® standard toxicity test. The selected IL was Ethylammonium Nitrate (EAN) and the nitrate salts were Lithium Nitrate (LiNO3), Calcium Nitrate (Ca(NO3)2), Magnesium Nitrate (Mg(NO3)2), and Aluminum Nitrate (Al(NO3)3). The effective concentration (EC50) of these mixtures was determined over three standard periods of time, namely 5, 15, and 30 min. Results of EC50 for pure EAN at 15 min are in relatively good concordance with the literature. To the best of our knowledge, no ecotoxicity studies have been performed for doped EAN. Similar results have been found for pure EAN and for EAN doped with LiNO3 and Mg(NO3)2, whose values indicated low toxicity. Nevertheless, the addition of Ca(NO3)2 and Al(NO3)3 cause an increase in the ecotoxicity of EAN, especially for the IL doped with Al(NO3)3, which present values associated to highly toxic compounds, comparable even with benzene or atrazine.
Keywords: ecotoxicity; ionic liquids; Vibrio fischeri; microtox; doped ecotoxicity; ionic liquids; Vibrio fischeri; microtox; doped
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Parajó, J.J.; Villanueva, M.; Varela, L.M.; Salgado, J. Ecotoxicity of EAN and Doped EAN Ionic Liquids . Proceedings 2019, 9, 56.

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