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Analysis on the Effect of Ball Pressure on Head Acceleration to Ensure Safety in Soccer^{ †}

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

## 3. Results/Discussion

## 4. Conclusions

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## References

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**Figure 2.**The effect of a ball pumped to 10 psi on the displacement of ball (blue and green) and head (red), the velocity of ball (blue and green) and head (red), and the acceleration of a head for a male heading a soccer ball.

**Figure 3.**The effect of a ball pumped to 10 psi (

**a**) on the displacement of the head of men, women, and youth and the effects of different ball pressures (

**b**) within the FIFA range on the acceleration n of the head in youth. Peak accelerations for the 8.5 psi, 10 psi, and 15.6 psi are 11.12 g, 12.31 g, and 15.92 g respectively.

**Figure 4.**A histogram (

**a**) showing the distribution of peak head accelerations through a Monte Carlo simulation with random variables for ball speed, head mass, and neck stiffness for youth. Also from the Monte Carlo simulation, is the probability (

**b**) that a certain mean head acceleration exceeds (10 g).

Parameter | Variable | Value male, female, youth | Units |
---|---|---|---|

mass of ball | m | 0.425, 0.425, 0.34 | kg |

mass ratio | μ | 0.1 | -- |

ball frequency | f_{3} | 150 | Hz |

head mass | m_{1} | 4.54, 4.54, 4.08 | kg |

rotational neck stiffness | ${k}_{\theta}$ | 0.26, 0.19, 0.11 | N-m/T |

head damping ratio | z_{1} | 100 | % |

ball velocity | ${\dot{x}}_{1o}$ | 6.7, 6.7, 7.6 | m/sec |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Christenson, A.J.; Casa, D.J.
Analysis on the Effect of Ball Pressure on Head Acceleration to Ensure Safety in Soccer. *Proceedings* **2020**, *49*, 3.
https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2020049003

**AMA Style**

Christenson AJ, Casa DJ.
Analysis on the Effect of Ball Pressure on Head Acceleration to Ensure Safety in Soccer. *Proceedings*. 2020; 49(1):3.
https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2020049003

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Christenson, Andrew J., and Douglas J. Casa.
2020. "Analysis on the Effect of Ball Pressure on Head Acceleration to Ensure Safety in Soccer" *Proceedings* 49, no. 1: 3.
https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2020049003