Application of Nanosilver in Swimming Pool Water Treatment Technology †
2. Materials and Methods
3. Results and Discussion
- The low levels of silver in pool water samples—about 0.008 mg/L—did not constitute a risk to the health of bathers. Silver concentrations of up to 0.1 mg/L can be tolerated in the case of silver salts to maintain the bacteriological quality of drinking water .
- Despite the use of the colloidal solution of nanosilver as a bacteriostatic product, it was found that favorable conditions for the development of bacterial colonies were present in the bed. The anthracite and sand filtration bed facilitated the growth of bacteria, which then were washed out to the filtrate.
- Although CFU of bacteria in the filtrate samples was high, water from the pool basin contained only 1 CFU/1 mL (permissible number: 100 CFU/1 mL). Thus, the two-step disinfection (UV + NaOCl) was sufficient to ensure safe bath.
- The redox values further confirmed the effectiveness of protecting the pool water against bacteriological contamination.
- Additionally, a systematic decrease in free chlorine concentration was observed in water samples taken from the subsequent parts of the pool circuit (filtering the water through a filtration bed with an anthracite layer decreased it by 88.6%) and the systematic increase of chlorides and nitrates during the filtration cycle indicated that an insufficient amount of water was taken into the pool circuit.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Parameter||WHO ||DIN 19643 [1,3]||ZHK NIZP-PZH ||Dz. U. of 2015, Item 2016 |
|Total plate count in 36 °C after 48 h (CFU/1 mL)||<200||100||100||100|
|Coliform bacteria of the fecal type (CFU/100 mL)||<1||-||0||-|
|Escherichia coli (CFU/100 mL)||1||0||0||0|
|Legionella sp. (CFU/100 mL)||<1||0||0||0|
|Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CFU/100 mL)||<1||0||0||0|
|Coagulase-positive staphylococci (CFU/100 mL)||-||-||2||-|
|Free chlorine (mgCl2/L)||0.5–1.2 1||0.3–0.6||0.1–0.3||0.3–0.6|
|Combined chlorine (mgCl2/L)||0.2||0.2||0.2||0.3|
|Silver (mgAg/L)||0.01 2||-||-||-|
|COD (mgO2/L)||-||4.0 3||5.0 3||4.0 3|
|Total plate count in 36 °C after 48 h (CFU/1 mL)||1||1||1||0||18||5||0||0||42||1||12||2||2.5 × 103||5.7 × 102||2.8 × 103||2.6 × 103||4||0||0||23|
|Coliform bacteria of the fecal type (CFU/100 mL)||<5||0||0||0||<5||0||0||0||<5||0||0||0||<5||0||0||0||<5||0||0||0|
|Escherichia coli (CFU/100 mL)||<5||0||0||0||<5||0||0||0||<5||0||0||0||<5||0||0||0||<5||0||0||0|
|Legionella sp. (CFU/100 mL)||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||140||14||4|
|Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CFU/100 mL)||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0|
|Coagulase-positive staphylococci (CFU/100 mL)||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0|
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Wyczarska-Kokot, J.; Piechurski, F. Application of Nanosilver in Swimming Pool Water Treatment Technology. Proceedings 2018, 2, 175. https://doi.org/10.3390/ecws-2-04944
Wyczarska-Kokot J, Piechurski F. Application of Nanosilver in Swimming Pool Water Treatment Technology. Proceedings. 2018; 2(5):175. https://doi.org/10.3390/ecws-2-04944Chicago/Turabian Style
Wyczarska-Kokot, Joanna, and Florian Piechurski. 2018. "Application of Nanosilver in Swimming Pool Water Treatment Technology" Proceedings 2, no. 5: 175. https://doi.org/10.3390/ecws-2-04944