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Article

Cardiovascular Circulatory System and Left Carotid Model: A Fractional Approach to Disease Modeling

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Escuela de Ingenierías Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, 06006 Badajoz, Spain
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Hospital San Pedro de Alcántara, 10071 Cáceres, Spain
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Centro de Cirugía de Mínima Invasión Jesús Usón, Ctra. N-521 km 41.8, 10071 Cáceres, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Norbert Herencsar and Manuel Duarte Ortigueira
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020064
Received: 30 November 2021 / Revised: 17 January 2022 / Accepted: 20 January 2022 / Published: 26 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractional Behavior in Nature 2021)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death worldwide, according to recent reports from the World Health Organization (WHO). This fact encourages research into the cardiovascular system (CVS) from multiple and different points of view than those given by the medical perspective, highlighting among them the computational and mathematical models that involve experiments much simpler and less expensive to be performed in comparison with in vivo or in vitro heart experiments. However, the CVS is a complex system that needs multidisciplinary knowledge to describe its dynamic models, which help to predict cardiovascular events in patients with heart failure, myocardial or valvular heart disease, so it remains an active area of research. Firstly, this paper presents a novel electrical model of the CVS that extends the classic Windkessel models to the left common carotid artery motivated by the need to have a more complete model from a medical point of view for validation purposes, as well as to describe other cardiovascular phenomena in this area, such as atherosclerosis, one of the main risk factors for CVDs. The model is validated by clinical indices and experimental data obtained from clinical trials performed on a pig. Secondly, as a first step, the goodness of a fractional-order behavior of this model is discussed to characterize different heart diseases through pressure–volume (PV) loops. Unlike other models, it allows us to modify not only the topology, parameters or number of model elements, but also the dynamic by tuning a single parameter, the characteristic differentiation order; consequently, it is expected to provide a valuable insight into this complex system and to support the development of clinical decision systems for CVDs. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular system; electrical model; experimental validation; fractional model; heart diseases; pressure–volume loops cardiovascular system; electrical model; experimental validation; fractional model; heart diseases; pressure–volume loops
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MDPI and ACS Style

Traver, J.E.; Nuevo-Gallardo, C.; Tejado, I.; Fernández-Portales, J.; Ortega-Morán, J.F.; Pagador, J.B.; Vinagre, B.M. Cardiovascular Circulatory System and Left Carotid Model: A Fractional Approach to Disease Modeling. Fractal Fract. 2022, 6, 64. https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020064

AMA Style

Traver JE, Nuevo-Gallardo C, Tejado I, Fernández-Portales J, Ortega-Morán JF, Pagador JB, Vinagre BM. Cardiovascular Circulatory System and Left Carotid Model: A Fractional Approach to Disease Modeling. Fractal and Fractional. 2022; 6(2):64. https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020064

Chicago/Turabian Style

Traver, José Emilio, Cristina Nuevo-Gallardo, Inés Tejado, Javier Fernández-Portales, Juan Francisco Ortega-Morán, J. Blas Pagador, and Blas M. Vinagre. 2022. "Cardiovascular Circulatory System and Left Carotid Model: A Fractional Approach to Disease Modeling" Fractal and Fractional 6, no. 2: 64. https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020064

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