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Open AccessArticle

A Casing Treatment with Axial Grooves for Centrifugal Compressors

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Institute of Gas Turbines and Aerospace Propulsion, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Otto-Berndt-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
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BorgWarner Turbo Systems Engineering GmbH, Kaiserstraße 1, 67292 Kirchheimbolanden, Germany
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Turbo Science GmbH, Robert-Bosch-Str. 7, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2019, 4(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp4030027
Received: 2 May 2019 / Revised: 22 July 2019 / Accepted: 7 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
This paper provides an investigation of a casing treatment (CT) approach for pressure ratio improvements of centrifugal compressors between peak efficiency and surge. Results were experimentally verified for a variety of automotive turbocharger compressors and analyzed with 3D CFD. The CT design is an adaptation from an axial high-pressure compressor, which was successfully applied and intensively investigated in recent years. The aerodynamic working principle of the applied CT design and the achievable improvements are shown and described. The demand of operating range for automotive applications typically dictates high inlet shroud to outlet radius ratio (high trim) and past experiences indicate that a recirculation zone is formed in the inducer for those centrifugal compressors. This recirculation at the inlet shroud causes losses, a massive blockage and induces a co-rotating swirl at the inlet of the impeller. The result is a reduced pressure ratio, often leading to flat speed lines between the onset of recirculation and surge. This paper provides an understanding of inducer recirculation, its impacts and suggests countermeasures. The CT design for centrifugal compressors only influences flow locally at the inducer and prevents recirculation. It differs substantially in design and functionality from the classical bleed slot system commonly used to increase operating range. An experimental and CFD comparison between these designs is presented. While the classical bleed slot system often provides a massive increase in operating range, it often fails to increase the pressure ratio between onset of inducer recirculation and surge. In contrast, the CT design achieves a gain in pressure ratio near surge. View Full-Text
Keywords: centrifugal compressors; casing treatments; automotive turbochargers centrifugal compressors; casing treatments; automotive turbochargers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Leichtfuß, S.; Bühler, J.; Schiffer, H.-P.; Peters, P.; Hanna, M. A Casing Treatment with Axial Grooves for Centrifugal Compressors. Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2019, 4, 27.

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