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Towards a Sustainable One Health Approach to Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Prevention: Focus Areas and Gaps in Knowledge

1
One Health Institute, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, 1089 Veterinary Medicine Drive, Davis, CA 95616, USA
2
Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
3
Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
4
Galveston National Laboratory, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
5
Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
6
Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Orient Point, NY 11957, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030113
Received: 2 June 2020 / Revised: 30 June 2020 / Accepted: 1 July 2020 / Published: 7 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod-Borne Viruses: The Outbreak Edition)
Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) infection is identified in the 2018 World Health Organization Research and Development Blueprint and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH/NIAID) priority A list due to its high risk to public health and national security. Tick-borne CCHFV is widespread, found in Europe, Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. It circulates between ticks and several vertebrate hosts without causing overt disease, and thus can be present in areas without being noticed by the public. As a result, the potential for zoonotic spillover from ticks and animals to humans is high. In contrast to other emerging viruses, human-to-human transmission of CCHFV is typically limited; therefore, prevention of spillover events should be prioritized when considering countermeasures. Several factors in the transmission dynamics of CCHFV, including a complex transmission cycle that involves both ticks and vertebrate hosts, lend themselves to a One Health approach for the prevention and control of the disease that are often overlooked by current strategies. Here, we examine critical focus areas to help mitigate CCHFV spillover, including surveillance, risk assessment, and risk reduction strategies concentrated on humans, animals, and ticks; highlight gaps in knowledge; and discuss considerations for a more sustainable One Health approach to disease control. View Full-Text
Keywords: One Health; spillover; animal-human interface; Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever; tick-borne virus; outbreak response; surveillance; tick; livestock; risk reduction One Health; spillover; animal-human interface; Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever; tick-borne virus; outbreak response; surveillance; tick; livestock; risk reduction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sorvillo, T.E.; Rodriguez, S.E.; Hudson, P.; Carey, M.; Rodriguez, L.L.; Spiropoulou, C.F.; Bird, B.H.; Spengler, J.R.; Bente, D.A. Towards a Sustainable One Health Approach to Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Prevention: Focus Areas and Gaps in Knowledge. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5, 113. https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030113

AMA Style

Sorvillo TE, Rodriguez SE, Hudson P, Carey M, Rodriguez LL, Spiropoulou CF, Bird BH, Spengler JR, Bente DA. Towards a Sustainable One Health Approach to Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Prevention: Focus Areas and Gaps in Knowledge. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2020; 5(3):113. https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030113

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sorvillo, Teresa E., Sergio E. Rodriguez, Peter Hudson, Megan Carey, Luis L. Rodriguez, Christina F. Spiropoulou, Brian H. Bird, Jessica R. Spengler, and Dennis A. Bente 2020. "Towards a Sustainable One Health Approach to Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Prevention: Focus Areas and Gaps in Knowledge" Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease 5, no. 3: 113. https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030113

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