The Financial Burden of Tuberculosis for Patients in the Western-Pacific Region
1.1. What are Catastrophic Costs in the Context of the End TB Strategy?
1.2. How Does “Catastrophic Costs” Differ from “Catastrophic Health Spending”?
2. Costs of TB Care in the Western Pacific Region
2.1. Costs of TB Care in Studies not Using the WHO Methodology to Measure Catastrophic Costs
2.2. Measuring the Costs of TB Care Using Nationally Representative TB Patient Cost Surveys
3. Program and Policy Implications
Conflicts of Interest
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|Country||Catastrophic Out-of-Pocket Health Spending a (SDG 3.8.2)||Catastrophic Costs Related to TB Care||Universal Health Coverage Service Coverage Index (SDG 3.8.1) b|
|Cost Category||Possible Changes in Service Delivery||TB Patient Social Support and Social Protection Schemes|
|Direct medical: before TB|
|Streamline the TB patient pathway:||Reduce/subsidize/eliminate out-of-pocket payments (OOPs):|
|Expand free-of-charge or highly subsidized TB service package including TB medicines, ancillary drugs, monitoring of adverse events, preventive treatment:|
Promote integrated management of comorbidities and risk factors (HIV, diabetes, other lung diseases, tobacco smoking, harmful use of alcohol):
Improve the quality of TB care:
|Direct non-medical||Advocate local health-seeking and for care models bringing services close to patients, including community- and workplace-based care:|
Improve the quality of nutritional advice and regulate irrational nutritional recommendations by health care providers (e.g., supplements)
|Provide assistance via TB program:|
Engage NGOs, civil society organizations and patient groups to ensure patient support suitable for the locality
costs (income loss)
|Range of interventions to enable earlier diagnosis and patient-centered care delivery that minimize time spent seeking and receiving care (decentralization, shorter waiting times, fewer health care visits, avoid unnecessary hospitalization, etc.):|
Improve access to social services:
|Facilitate enrolment of eligible patients/households in existing social protection schemes:|
Legislate and/or enforce provisions related to social, economic, and labor rights to protect individuals during TB illness and care
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Viney, K.; Islam, T.; Hoa, N.B.; Morishita, F.; Lönnroth, K. The Financial Burden of Tuberculosis for Patients in the Western-Pacific Region. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4, 94. https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4020094
Viney K, Islam T, Hoa NB, Morishita F, Lönnroth K. The Financial Burden of Tuberculosis for Patients in the Western-Pacific Region. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2019; 4(2):94. https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4020094Chicago/Turabian Style
Viney, Kerri, Tauhidul Islam, Nguyen Binh Hoa, Fukushi Morishita, and Knut Lönnroth. 2019. "The Financial Burden of Tuberculosis for Patients in the Western-Pacific Region" Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease 4, no. 2: 94. https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4020094