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Correction published on 19 January 2019, see Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(1), 16.
Open AccessReview

Current Status of the Sm14/GLA-SE Schistosomiasis Vaccine: Overcoming Barriers and Paradigms towards the First Anti-Parasitic Human(itarian) Vaccine

FIOCRUZ—Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Laboratório de Esquistossomose Experimental, Av. Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro 21045-900, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(4), 121;
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prospects for Schistosomiasis Elimination)
Schistosomiasis, a disease historically associated with poverty, lack of sanitation and social inequality, is a chronic, debilitating parasitic infection, affecting hundreds of millions of people in endemic countries. Although chemotherapy is capable of reducing morbidity in humans, rapid re-infection demonstrates that the impact of drug treatment on transmission control or disease elimination is marginal. In addition, despite more than two decades of well-executed control activities based on large-scale chemotherapy, the disease is expanding in many areas including Brazil. The development of the Sm14/GLA-SE schistosomiasis vaccine is an emblematic, open knowledge innovation that has successfully completed phase I and phase IIa clinical trials, with Phase II/III trials underway in the African continent, to be followed by further trials in Brazil. The discovery and experimental phases of the development of this vaccine gathered a robust collection of data that strongly supports the ongoing clinical phase. This paper reviews the development of the Sm14 vaccine, formulated with glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA-SE), from the initial experimental developments to clinical trials including the current status of phase II studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: schistosomiasis; vaccine; Sm14; FABP schistosomiasis; vaccine; Sm14; FABP
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Tendler, M.; Almeida, M.S.; Vilar, M.M.; Pinto, P.M.; Limaverde-Sousa, G. Current Status of the Sm14/GLA-SE Schistosomiasis Vaccine: Overcoming Barriers and Paradigms towards the First Anti-Parasitic Human(itarian) Vaccine. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3, 121.

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