Next Article in Journal
Augmented Reality: Advances in Diagnostic Imaging
Previous Article in Journal
A Survey on the Procedural Generation of Virtual Worlds
Open AccessArticle

Human Perception Measures for Product Design and Development—A Tutorial to Measurement Methods and Analysis

Measurement and Sensor Technology, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Merckstr. 25, 64289 Darmstadt, Germany
Mechatronics and Micro Systems Technology, Heilbronn University, Max-Planck-Str. 39, 74081 Heilbronn, Germany
Lightning Technology, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Hochschulstraße 4a, 64289 Darmstadt, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Multimodal Technologies Interact. 2017, 1(4), 28;
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
PDF [1367 KB, uploaded 31 October 2017]


This tutorial describes the necessary steps for designing and conducting a perception experiment in order to obtain design parameters for human–machine interactions. It is intended for engineers and product designers, which require design parameters not included in the current state of the art. Topics addressed are the preposition of hypotheses, the selection of parameters, psychophysical measurement procedures and the calculation of sample sizes. Relevant steps for data analysis from psychology and social sciences are applied to the engineering and design context and guidelines for reporting results are given. The required steps are illustrated with an example experiment assessing detection thresholds of damping parameters of haptic automotive rotary controls with regard to parameters like knob diameter and distraction. Results imply significant effects of knob diameter on both absolute and differential thresholds, but no effect of distraction, implying a good transferability of laboratory results to real-world applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: psychophysics; design of experiments; data analysis psychophysics; design of experiments; data analysis

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hatzfeld, C.; Kühner, M.; Söllner, S.; Khanh, T.Q.; Kupnik, M. Human Perception Measures for Product Design and Development—A Tutorial to Measurement Methods and Analysis. Multimodal Technologies Interact. 2017, 1, 28.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Multimodal Technologies Interact. EISSN 2414-4088 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top