- freely available
Urban Sci. 2019, 3(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci3010019
- Develop experimental methods to test the efficacy of real-life water-saving interventions in a living laboratory (the initial design and some of the challenges faced with the complexity of triangulating between different epistemological and methodological approaches to combine volumetric and end-user reported data are reported in this paper);
- Explore and analyse the variation and complexity of showering routines of young adults (early findings are reported here) and use these insights to;
- Develop targeted practical and novel water efficiency interventions underpinned by theories of behaviour change and social practice (next steps, beyond the scope of this paper).
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Participants and Setting
2.2. Water Fixtures Audit
2.3. Water Consumption Monitoring
2.4. Water-Saving Interventions
2.5. Qualitative End-User Data Collection
- Time of day
- Location (shower room or off-site)
- Volume (Amphiro users only—houses G/H)
- Products used
- In-shower activities
- Thoughts or emotions during the shower.
- Duration: Before the trial, approximately how many minutes do you spend in the shower (each time you shower)? Has this changed since the trial? [yes, no, don’t know] If yes, please describe how this has changed.
- Frequency: How often do you shower? [More than once per day, Every day, 5–6 times per week, 3–4 times per week, 2 times per week, About once a week, Other]
- Time of day: When do you usually shower? [Mostly first thing in the morning, usually before going out in the evening, usually before going to bed, No fixed pattern, Other]
- Flow: When you first turn the shower on, do you: [Start showering straight away, wait a short while for the water to warm up before getting under, Turn the shower on then do something else while you wait for it to warm up, Other]
- Products: How many different personal shower products do you use during a typical shower? For example: shampoo, conditioner, shower gel, soap, shaving gel/mousse, exfoliator, face-wash, face-pack, etc. [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, more than 5]
- Activities: Which activities do you undertake during a typical shower? Please tick ALL that apply. [Shampoo hair once, Shampoo hair twice, Condition hair, Wash body, Wash face, Exfoliate, Shave, Face-pack, Brush teeth, Other]
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Quantitative Consumption Data Analysis
3.2. Qualitative End-User Data Analysis
Conflicts of Interest
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(18–22 Years:23–29 Years)
|UWE Gym Membership||Nationality|
(UK, EU, Non-EU)
|A||8||8:0||3:5||5||1, 0, 7|
|B||8||4:4||8:0||2||7, 0, 1|
|C||8||8:0||7:1||4||0, 0, 8|
|D||10||5:5||6:4||2||5, 0, 5|
|E||8 (2 void)||5:3||7:1||4||6, 0, 2|
|F||8||8:0||8:0||2||5, 2, 1|
|G||8||4:4||8:0||2||5, 2, 1|
|H||10||3:7||9:1||4||8, 2, 0|
|I||10||4:6||9:1||7||8, 2, 0|
|J||8||4:4||7:1||3||7, 1, 0|
|Total||86||53:33||72:14||35||52, 9, 25|
|%||97.7% of max||62:38%||84:16%||41%||61, 11, 29%|
(installed 14-February, removed 07-March 2018)
|Generic water-saving messages in communal area notice board/downstairs WC (back of door)|
‘Share a shower’ (house C) and ‘Pee in the shower’ (house D) in shower rooms (back of door) (see Figure 5)
|E/F||4-mintue shower timers|
(left with diary participants on 21-February 2018)
|One per resident|
|G/H||Amphiro a1 smart shower meter|
(installed 14-February, diary participants briefed on 21-February 2018)
|Installed in each shower room (see Figure 6)|
(28-February 2018, 2.30 pm in house J)
|Communal area—all residents invited, refreshments provided|
|House||Number of Showers||Mean Showerhead Flow Rate (L/m)||Mean Unregulated Shower Flow (no Showerhead, L/m)|
|House||Whole Study Period||Pre-Intervention||Interventions Deployed||Diaries||Post-Diaries||Change in PCC (L and %)|
|22 January–13 March||22 January–13 February||14 February–20 February||21 February–07 March||08 March–13 March||Between pre- /post-intervention|
|Interventions (poster/timer/Amphiro)||None||Installed (as Table 2)||Diaries (see Section 3.2)||Remain in situ|
|G 1/H||106.6||123.0||110.2||95.9||68.8||54.3 (13.3%)|
|I/J||83.3||82.1||89.0||78.5 2||93.4||+11.2 (+1.5%)|
|Variable||Number of Days||Mean PHC (L/h/d)||Shower Volume Component of Mean PHC (L/h/d and %)||Mean Shower Event Frequency (L/h/d)||Mean Shower event Duration (Digital Minutes)||Mean Shower Event Volume (L)|
|All days:||51||740.7||264.7 (35.7%)||5.2||9.1||51.1|
|Amphiro in situ||28||687.2||209.6 (30.5%)||4.5||8.8||30.5|
|Diaries only||15||618.7||195.5 (31.6%)||4.7||8.4||31.6|
|Diaries to end||21||606.4||189.4 (31.2%)||4.2||9.0||31.2|
|House||Intervention||Diaries||Focus Groups||Questionnaire Responses|
|Q||Control||3 1||2 2||1 ,1 3|
|B||Control||1 1||1 1||1|
|D||Poster 2||2 , 1||2 3||1 1|
|H||Amphiro||2 3||1 5||2 1|
|J||Face-to-face||2||1 3||1 ,1|
|Total||19 , 7||10 , 12||15 , 4|
- diaries = 3 females from site Q (outside study site, within 37-house development)
- focus groups—2 males from site Q (outside study site, attended house C/D focus group)
- questionnairess = 1 male from site Q (outside study site, (also attended house C/D focus group).
|Houses||Mean Frequency (per Day)||Frequency Range (Min-Max, per Day)||Mean Duration (Minutes)||Duration Range (Min-Max, Minutes)||Average Number of Products||Average Number of In-Shower Activities|
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