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The Duality of Knee Functional Axes and Foot Contact

School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
School of Mechanical Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea
Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nick Caplan
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(4), 387-395;
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 4 November 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Knee: Structure, Function and Rehabilitation)
PDF [892 KB, uploaded 18 November 2016]


Estimating the knee functional axis (KFA) is crucial to both correctly implanting a prosthesis and accessing joint kinematics. Researchers have reported on the KFA mainly with regard to manual management of flexion–extension movements performed passively without any voluntary movements. Active touch and movement refers to what is ordinarily called touching—variations in skin stimulation caused by surfaces are altered together by variations in motor activity. This fact is worth noting because it is often neglected that locomotion and its surfaces form an inseparable pair. The objective of this study was to confirm the distinction between touching and being touched. We were particularly interested in measuring the instantaneous axes of the knee (IAK) during locomotion. We propose the invariant structure of the knee as an attempt to distill a kind of higher-order simplification of a knee model relative to the enormous complexities of analytical anatomical objects. View Full-Text
Keywords: invariant structure of the knee; active touch; a model of duality; active movement; reciprocity; instantaneous axes of the knee (IAK) invariant structure of the knee; active touch; a model of duality; active movement; reciprocity; instantaneous axes of the knee (IAK)

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Kim, W.; Choi, Y.; Lee, H.-G. The Duality of Knee Functional Axes and Foot Contact. J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1, 387-395.

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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. EISSN 2411-5142 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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