Next Article in Journal
Development of a Double Skin Facade System Applied in a Virtual Occupied Chamber
Next Article in Special Issue
Agriculture Model Comparison Framework and MyGeoHub Hosting: Case of Soil Nitrogen
Previous Article in Journal
Deep Learning-Assisted Short-Term Load Forecasting for Sustainable Management of Energy in Microgrid
Previous Article in Special Issue
Grading of Scots Pine Seeds by the Seed Coat Color: How to Optimize the Engineering Parameters of the Mobile Optoelectronic Device
Open AccessArticle

Sensor Localization Using Time of Arrival Measurements in a Multi-Media and Multi-Path Application of In-Situ Wireless Soil Sensing

1
Anthem, Inc., Palo Alto, CA 94301, USA
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6010016
Received: 27 November 2020 / Revised: 22 February 2021 / Accepted: 22 February 2021 / Published: 27 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics and Automation in Agriculture)
The problem of localization of nodes of a wireless sensor network placed in different physical media (anchor nodes above ground and sensor nodes underground) is addressed in this article. We use time of arrival of signals transmitted between neighboring sensor nodes and between satellite nodes and sensor nodes as the ranging measurement. The localization problem is formulated as a parameter estimation of the joint distribution of the time of arrival values. The probability distribution of the time of arrival of a signal is derived based on rigorous statistical analysis and its parameters are expressed in terms of the location coordinates of the sensor nodes. Maximum likelihood estimates of the nodes’ location coordinates as parameters of the joint distribution of the various time of arrival variables in the network are computed. Sensitivity analysis to study the variation in the estimates with respect to error in measured soil complex permittivity and magnetic permeability is presented to validate the model and methodology. View Full-Text
Keywords: sensor networks; localization; time of arrival; multi-path triangulation sensor networks; localization; time of arrival; multi-path triangulation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Sahota, H.; Kumar, R. Sensor Localization Using Time of Arrival Measurements in a Multi-Media and Multi-Path Application of In-Situ Wireless Soil Sensing. Inventions 2021, 6, 16. https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6010016

AMA Style

Sahota H, Kumar R. Sensor Localization Using Time of Arrival Measurements in a Multi-Media and Multi-Path Application of In-Situ Wireless Soil Sensing. Inventions. 2021; 6(1):16. https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6010016

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sahota, Herman; Kumar, Ratnesh. 2021. "Sensor Localization Using Time of Arrival Measurements in a Multi-Media and Multi-Path Application of In-Situ Wireless Soil Sensing" Inventions 6, no. 1: 16. https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6010016

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop