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Condens. Matter 2018, 3(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat3040047

Iron Speciation in Insoluble Dust from High-Latitude Snow: An X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study

1
State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Land Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing, 100875, China
4
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati, Italy
5
RICMASS, Rome International Center for Materials Science Superstripes, 00185 Rome, Italy
6
Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE, UK
7
Earth and Environmental Sciences Department, University Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milano, Italy
8
INFN-Milan Bicocca Section, 20126 Milan, Italy
9
Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing,100049, China
10
CNR-IOM-OGG, c/o ESRF, 38043 Grenoble, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Condensed Matter Researches in Cryospheric Science)
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Abstract

Iron is thought to limit the biomass of phytoplankton populations in extensive regions of the ocean, which are referred to as high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions. Iron speciation in soils is still poorly understood. We have investigated inorganic and organic standard substances, diluted mixtures of common Fe minerals in insoluble dust in snow from the Laohugou No.12 glacier, and sand (including soil and moraine) samples that were collected from western China. The speciation of iron (Fe) in insoluble dust and sand was determined by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. A linear fit combination (LCF) analysis of the experimental spectra compared to a large set of reference compounds showed that all spectra can be fitted by only four species: Fe2O3, Fe3O4, biotite, and ferrous oxalate dihydrate (FOD). A significant altitude effect was detected for snow. The proportion of Fe2O3 in snow decreases gradually, and vice versa for FOD. As for Fe3O4 and biotite, the altitude effect was also detected, but separate regions should be considered to be deduced by topography. The Fe species in moraines and soils were also analyzed to identify the source of moraines and the heterogeneity of soils, and were compared with snow. View Full-Text
Keywords: Laohugou glacier; snow; insoluble dust; iron speciation; XANES and LCF Laohugou glacier; snow; insoluble dust; iron speciation; XANES and LCF
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Liu, S.; Xiao, C.; Du, Z.; Marcelli, A.; Cibin, G.; Baccolo, G.; Zhu, Y.; Puri, A.; Maggi, V.; Xu, W. Iron Speciation in Insoluble Dust from High-Latitude Snow: An X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study. Condens. Matter 2018, 3, 47.

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