- freely available
Fishes 2019, 4(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010021
2.1. Survival and Cannibalism Rates
2.2. Growth and Development
2.3. Effect of Perch as Prey on the Inter-Individual Relationships and Group Structure of Pikeperch Larvae
4. Material and Methods
4.1. Rearing of the Fish
4.2. Experimental Design
- Survival rate = (Number of living larvae at the end of the period)/(Total number of larvae introduced into the rack (initial larvae  + larvae replaced daily)) × 100,
- Cannibalism rate = (Total number of larvae introduced into the rack—Cumulated number of dead larvae during the period—Number of living larvae at the end of the period)/(Total number of larvae introduced into the rack) × 100.
4.3. Influence of Perch as Prey on Zootechnical Parameters
- The specific growth rate, which is the rate of daily mass gain: SGR = (lnWf-lnWi)/Td × 100, where Wf (mg) and Wi (mg) were respectively the mean final and initial body weight, and Td (days) the time of the experiment in days. As it was not possible to weigh individually all the larvae before the experiment, we used the mean mass of 45 larvae collected from the same tank for calculating the initial mean individual mass. It was thus the same for all the racks.
- Fulton’s condition factor: FCF = W/L3, where W (mg) and L (mm) were the weight and total length of each individual at the end of the experiment, respectively. FCF was calculated for each fish of all the racks.
4.4. Influence of Perch as Prey on the Relationships between Pikeperch Larvae
- The S posture: the fish adopts a posture with the shape of S in front of a conspecific and stays motionless.
- The attack: it is characterized by a sudden movement forward in the direction of a conspecific. It can be subsequent to the S posture or not.
- The capture: it occurs when an individual grabs a conspecific with its mouth and attempts to ingest it. The victim can escape or not. In general, it is grabbed by flanks or tail.
- The ingestion: after the capture, the cannibal attempts to ingest its prey. For that, it needs to reorient the prey into a tail-first or head-first position to swallow it.
4.5. Influence of Perch as Prey on the Pikeperch Group Structure
- The distance (cm) to the nearest neighbour for each larva of the group, which is an index of the group aggregation: the shorter the distance is, the greater the aggregation.
- The mean distance (cm) for each larva to all the other members of the group, which is correlated with the group cohesion: the shorter the mean distance is, the greater the group cohesion.
- The variance of the mean distance for each larva, which is a parameter of the group homogeneity: the lower the variance is, the higher the homogeneity of the group.
Conflicts of Interest
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|pH||Ammonium Ion Content|
|Nitrous Nitrogen Content|
|(a)||7.8 ± 0.3||8.0 ± 0.2||0.05 ± 0.04||0.01 ± 0.03|
|(b)||7.5 ± 0.2||6.9 ± 0.7||0.07 ± 0,06||0.02 ± 0.02|
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