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Article

Minimum Round Card-Based Cryptographic Protocols Using Private Operations

Faculty of Informatics, Kogakuin University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 163-8677, Japan
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This paper is an extended version of our paper published in 14th International Workshop on Data Privacy Management (DPM 2019), Luxembourg, September 26–27, LNCS, Springer, 2019; Volume 11737, pp. 156–173.
Academic Editor: Siamak F. Shahandashti
Cryptography 2021, 5(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography5030017
Received: 14 April 2021 / Revised: 30 June 2021 / Accepted: 11 July 2021 / Published: 13 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Techniques and Protocols to Preserve and Enhance Privacy)
This paper shows new card-based cryptographic protocols with the minimum number of rounds, using private operations under the semi-honest model. Physical cards are used in card-based cryptographic protocols instead of computers to achieve secure multiparty computation. Operations that a player executes in a place where the other players cannot see are called private operations. Using three private operations—private random bisection cuts, private reverse cuts, and private reveals—the calculations of two variable Boolean functions and copy operations were realized with the minimum number of cards. Though the number of cards has been discussed, the efficiency of these protocols has not been discussed. This paper defines the number of rounds to evaluate the efficiency of the protocols, using private operations. Most of the meaningful calculations using private operations need at least two rounds. This paper presents a new two-round committed-input, committed-output logical XOR protocol, using four cards. Then, we show new two-round committed-input, committed-output logical AND and copy protocols, using six cards. Even if private reveal operations are not used, logical XOR, logical AND, and copy operations can be executed with the minimum number of rounds. Protocols for general n-variable Boolean functions and protocols that preserve an input are also shown. Lastly, protocols with asymmetric cards are shown. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiparty secure computation; card-based cryptographic protocols; private operations; logical computations; copy; round multiparty secure computation; card-based cryptographic protocols; private operations; logical computations; copy; round
MDPI and ACS Style

Ono, H.; Manabe, Y. Minimum Round Card-Based Cryptographic Protocols Using Private Operations. Cryptography 2021, 5, 17. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography5030017

AMA Style

Ono H, Manabe Y. Minimum Round Card-Based Cryptographic Protocols Using Private Operations. Cryptography. 2021; 5(3):17. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography5030017

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ono, Hibiki, and Yoshifumi Manabe. 2021. "Minimum Round Card-Based Cryptographic Protocols Using Private Operations" Cryptography 5, no. 3: 17. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography5030017

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