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Open AccessArticle

Securing Additive Manufacturing with Blockchains and Distributed Physically Unclonable Functions

1
School of Informatics, Computing, and Cyber Systems, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, USA
2
Air Force Research Laboratory, Rome, NY 13441, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cryptography 2020, 4(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography4020017
Received: 28 April 2020 / Revised: 15 June 2020 / Accepted: 15 June 2020 / Published: 18 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Hardware Security)
Blockchain technology is a game-changing, enhancing security for the supply chain of smart additive manufacturing. Blockchain enables the tracking and recording of the history of each transaction in a ledger stored in the cloud that cannot be altered, and when blockchain is combined with digital signatures, it verifies the identity of the participants with its non-repudiation capabilities. One of the weaknesses of blockchain is the difficulty of preventing malicious participants from gaining access to public–private key pairs. Groups of opponents often interact freely with the network, and this is a security concern when cloud-based methods manage the key pairs. Therefore, we are proposing end-to-end security schemes by both inserting tamper-resistant devices in the hardware of the peripheral devices and using ternary cryptography. The tamper-resistant devices, which are designed with nanomaterials, act as Physical Unclonable Functions to generate secret cryptographic keys. One-time use public–private key pairs are generated for each transaction. In addition, the cryptographic scheme incorporates a third logic state to mitigate man-in-the-middle attacks. The generation of these public–private key pairs is compatible with post quantum cryptography. The third scheme we are proposing is the use of noise injection techniques used with high-performance computing to increase the security of the system. We present prototypes to demonstrate the feasibility of these schemes and to quantify the relevant parameters. We conclude by presenting the value of blockchains to secure the logistics of additive manufacturing operations. View Full-Text
Keywords: blockchain; digital signatures; key distribution; additive manufacturing; ternary cryptography; physical unclonable functions; high-performance computing blockchain; digital signatures; key distribution; additive manufacturing; ternary cryptography; physical unclonable functions; high-performance computing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cambou, B.; Gowanlock, M.; Heynssens, J.; Jain, S.; Philabaum, C.; Booher, D.; Burke, I.; Garrard, J.; Telesca, D.; Njilla, L. Securing Additive Manufacturing with Blockchains and Distributed Physically Unclonable Functions. Cryptography 2020, 4, 17. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography4020017

AMA Style

Cambou B, Gowanlock M, Heynssens J, Jain S, Philabaum C, Booher D, Burke I, Garrard J, Telesca D, Njilla L. Securing Additive Manufacturing with Blockchains and Distributed Physically Unclonable Functions. Cryptography. 2020; 4(2):17. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography4020017

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cambou, Bertrand; Gowanlock, Michael; Heynssens, Julie; Jain, Saloni; Philabaum, Christopher; Booher, Duane; Burke, Ian; Garrard, Jack; Telesca, Donald; Njilla, Laurent. 2020. "Securing Additive Manufacturing with Blockchains and Distributed Physically Unclonable Functions" Cryptography 4, no. 2: 17. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography4020017

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