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Cryptography, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2019) – 4 articles

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Open AccessArticle
New Mathblocks-Based Feistel-Like Ciphers for Creating Clone-Resistant FPGA Devices
Cryptography 2019, 3(4), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography3040028 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 392
Abstract
The Secret Unknown Cipher (SUC) concept was introduced a decade ago as a promising technique for creating pure digital clone-resistant electronic units as alternatives to the traditional non-consistent Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs). In this work, a very special unconventional cipher design is presented. [...] Read more.
The Secret Unknown Cipher (SUC) concept was introduced a decade ago as a promising technique for creating pure digital clone-resistant electronic units as alternatives to the traditional non-consistent Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs). In this work, a very special unconventional cipher design is presented. The design uses hard-core FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) -Mathblocks available in modern system-on-chip (SoC) FPGAs. Such Mathblocks are often not completely used in many FPGA applications; therefore, it seems wise to make use of such dead (unused) modules to fabricate usable physical security functions for free. Standard cipher designs usually avoid deploying multipliers in the cipher mapping functions due to their high complexity. The main target of this work is to design large cipher classes (e.g., cipher class size >2600) by mainly deploying the FPGA specific mathematical cores. The proposed cipher designs are novel hardware-oriented and new in the public literature, using fully new unusual mapping functions. If a random unknown selection of one cipher out of 2600 ciphers is self-configured in a device, then a Secret Unknown Cipher module is created within a device, making it physically hard to clone. We consider the cipher module for free (for zero cost) if the major elements in the cipher module are making use of unused reanimated Mathblocks. Such ciphers are usable in many future mass products for protecting vehicular units against cloning and modeling attacks. The required self-reconfigurable devices for that concept are not available now; however, they are expected to emerge in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Hardware Security)
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Open AccessArticle
Certified Randomness From Steering Using Sequential Measurements
Cryptography 2019, 3(4), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography3040027 - 06 Dec 2019
Viewed by 454
Abstract
The generation of certifiable randomness is one of the most promising applications of quantum technologies. Furthermore, the intrinsic non-locality of quantum correlations allow us to certify randomness in a device-independent way, i.e., we do not need to make assumptions about the devices used. [...] Read more.
The generation of certifiable randomness is one of the most promising applications of quantum technologies. Furthermore, the intrinsic non-locality of quantum correlations allow us to certify randomness in a device-independent way, i.e., we do not need to make assumptions about the devices used. Due to the work of Curchod et al. a single entangled two-qubit pure state can be used to produce arbitrary amounts of certified randomness. However, the obtaining of this randomness is experimentally challenging as it requires a large number of measurements, both projective and general. Motivated by these difficulties in the device-independent setting, we instead consider the scenario of one-sided device independence where certain devices are trusted, and others are not; a scenario motivated by asymmetric experimental set-ups such as ion-photon networks. We show how certain aspects of previous works can be adapted to this scenario and provide theoretical bounds on the amount of randomness that can be certified. Furthermore, we give a protocol for unbounded randomness certification in this scenario, and provide numerical results demonstrating the protocol in the ideal case. Finally, we numerically test the possibility of implementing this scheme on near-term quantum technologies, by considering the performance of the protocol on several physical platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Cryptography and Cyber Security)
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Open AccessArticle
Practically Feasible Robust Quantum Money with Classical Verification
Cryptography 2019, 3(4), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography3040026 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 558
Abstract
We introduce a private quantum money scheme with the note verification procedure based on sampling matching, a problem in a one-way communication complexity model. Our scheme involves a bank who produces and distributes quantum notes, noteholders who are untrusted, and trusted local verifiers [...] Read more.
We introduce a private quantum money scheme with the note verification procedure based on sampling matching, a problem in a one-way communication complexity model. Our scheme involves a bank who produces and distributes quantum notes, noteholders who are untrusted, and trusted local verifiers of the bank to whom the holders send their notes in order to carry out transactions. The key aspects of our money scheme include: note verification procedure requiring a single round classical interaction between the local verifier and bank; fixed verification circuit that uses only passive linear optical components; re-usability of each note in our scheme which grows linearly with the size of note; and an unconditional security against any adversary trying to forge the banknote while tolerating the noise of up to 21.4%. We further describe a practical implementation technique of our money scheme using weak coherent states of light and the verification circuit involving a single 50/50 beam splitter and two single-photon threshold detectors. Previous best-known matching based money scheme proposal involves a verification circuit where the number of optical components increase proportional to the increase in desired noise tolerance (robustness). In contrast, we achieve any desired noise tolerance (up to a maximal threshold value) with only a fixed number of optical components. This considerable reduction of components in our scheme enables us to reach the robustness values that is not feasible for any existing money scheme with the current technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Cryptography and Cyber Security)
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Open AccessArticle
Intercept-Resend Emulation Attacks against a Continuous-Variable Quantum Authentication Protocol with Physical Unclonable Keys
Cryptography 2019, 3(4), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography3040025 - 25 Oct 2019
Viewed by 743
Abstract
Optical physical unclonable keys are currently considered to be rather promising candidates for the development of entity authentication protocols, which offer security against both classical and quantum adversaries. In this work, we investigate the robustness of a continuous-variable protocol, which relies on the [...] Read more.
Optical physical unclonable keys are currently considered to be rather promising candidates for the development of entity authentication protocols, which offer security against both classical and quantum adversaries. In this work, we investigate the robustness of a continuous-variable protocol, which relies on the scattering of coherent states of light from the key, against three different types of intercept–resend emulation attacks. The performance of the protocol is analyzed for a broad range of physical parameters, and our results are compared to existing security bounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Cryptography and Cyber Security)
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