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Cryptography 2018, 2(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography2010001

Multi-Factor Authentication: A Survey

1
Laboratory of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland
2
Department of Security of Cyberphysical Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg RU-197101, Russia
3
Department of Computer Science, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
This manuscript is an extended version of work by A. Ometov and S. Bezzateev titled “Multi-factor Authentication: A Survey and Challenges in V2X Applications” presented at the 9 th International Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems (ICUMT) on 6 November 2017.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 17 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 5 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biometric and Bio-inspired Approaches in Cryptography)
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Abstract

Today, digitalization decisively penetrates all the sides of the modern society. One of the key enablers to maintain this process secure is authentication. It covers many different areas of a hyper-connected world, including online payments, communications, access right management, etc. This work sheds light on the evolution of authentication systems towards Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) starting from Single-Factor Authentication (SFA) and through Two-Factor Authentication (2FA). Particularly, MFA is expected to be utilized for human-to-everything interactions by enabling fast, user-friendly, and reliable authentication when accessing a service. This paper surveys the already available and emerging sensors (factor providers) that allow for authenticating a user with the system directly or by involving the cloud. The corresponding challenges from the user as well as the service provider perspective are also reviewed. The MFA system based on reversed Lagrange polynomial within Shamir’s Secret Sharing (SSS) scheme is further proposed to enable more flexible authentication. This solution covers the cases of authenticating the user even if some of the factors are mismatched or absent. Our framework allows for qualifying the missing factors by authenticating the user without disclosing sensitive biometric data to the verification entity. Finally, a vision of the future trends in MFA is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: survey; authentication; SFA; 2FA; MFA; evolution; vision survey; authentication; SFA; 2FA; MFA; evolution; vision
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Ometov, A.; Bezzateev, S.; Mäkitalo, N.; Andreev, S.; Mikkonen, T.; Koucheryavy, Y. Multi-Factor Authentication: A Survey. Cryptography 2018, 2, 1.

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