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Method to Convert Stem Cells into Cancer Stem Cells

Department of Medical Bioengineering, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530, Japan
Division of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El Koum-Menoufia 32511, Egypt
Laboratory of Nano-Biotechnology, Graduate School of Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering in Health Systems, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530, Japan
Okayama University Research Laboratory of Stem Cell Engineering in Detroit, IBio, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8558, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Methods Protoc. 2019, 2(3), 71; (registering DOI)
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 28 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
PDF [4097 KB, uploaded 16 August 2019]


The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis suggests that tumors are sustained exclusively by a small population of the cells with stem cell properties. CSCs have been identified in most tumors and are responsible for the initiation, recurrence, and resistance of different cancers. In vitro CSC models will be of great help in revisiting the mechanism of cancer development, as well as the tumor microenvironment and the heterogeneity of cancer and metastasis. Our group recently described the generation of CSCs from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which were reprogrammed from normal cells, and/or embryonic stem cells (ESCs). This procedure will improve the understanding of the essential niche involved in cancer initiation. The composition of this cancer-inducing niche, if identified, will let us know how normal cells convert to malignant in the body and how, in turn, cancer prevention could be achieved. Further, once developed, CSCs demonstrate the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, and other phenotypes establishing the CSC niche. These will be good materials for developing novel cancer treatments. In this protocol, we describe how to handle mouse iPSCs/ESCs and how to choose the critical time for starting the conversion into CSCs. This CSC generation protocol is essential for understanding the role of CSC in cancer initiation and progress.
Keywords: cancer stem cells; induced pluripotent stem cells; embryonic stem cells (ESCs); conditioned medium (CM) cancer stem cells; induced pluripotent stem cells; embryonic stem cells (ESCs); conditioned medium (CM)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Afify, S.M.; Chen, L.; Yan, T.; Calle, A.S.; Nair, N.; Murakami, C.; Zahra, M.H.; Okada, N.; Iwasaki, Y.; Seno, A.; Seno, M. Method to Convert Stem Cells into Cancer Stem Cells. Methods Protoc. 2019, 2, 71.

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