Background: To ascertain the degree of knowledge of postpartum women about important aspects related to the neonatal screening process and whether differences of opinion exist between those who deliver in low-complexity versus high-complexity health facilities (low-risk versus high-risk pregnancies, respectively). Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study. The sample consisted of postpartum women recruited from 2013 to 2015 at public maternity hospitals in the city of Niterói, Brazil. Participants were divided into two groups and completed a questionnaire consisting of Likert-scored items. Continuous variables were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney test, and categorical variables, with Fisher’s test. A confirmatory factor analysis of participants’ answers was performed. Results: Of 188 women enrolled, 54 (28.7%) had incomplete elementary education; 119 (62.2%) had attended more than six antenatal care visits. The mean age was 25.57 years. Nearly all women (n
= 179, 95.2%) were roomed-in with their infants. Knowledge of neonatal screening was very similar in the high-complexity and low-complexity groups. Divergences were limited to items regarding the risks of neonatal screening. Conclusions: The degree of knowledge among postpartum women was similar among high- and low-complexity facilities. Those who attended high-complexity facilities had longer hospital stays and greater adherence to ethical issues regarding neonatal screening.
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