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Article

The Significance of Echo Time in fMRI BOLD Contrast: A Clinical Study during Motor and Visual Activation Tasks at 1.5 T

1
Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Greece
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Computational Biomedicine Laboratory (CBML), Institute of Computer Science, Foundation for Research and Technology—Hellas (FORTH), 70013 Heraklion, Greece
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Institute of Applied Mathematics, FORTH, 70013 Heraklion, Greece
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Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Greece
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Research & Measurements Center of OHS Hazardous Agents, OHS Directorate, Hellenic Ministry of Labor, 10110 Athens, Greece
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Lighting Lab, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Athens, Greece
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Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Greece
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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Hellenic Mediterranean University, 71410 Heraklion, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jan H. Ardenkjaer-Larsen
Tomography 2021, 7(3), 333-343; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7030030
Received: 17 June 2021 / Revised: 28 July 2021 / Accepted: 31 July 2021 / Published: 5 August 2021
Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) is a commonly-used MR imaging technique in studying brain function. The BOLD signal can be strongly affected by specific sequence parameters, especially in small field strengths. Previous small-scale studies have investigated the effect of TE on BOLD contrast. This study evaluates the dependence of fMRI results on echo time (TE) during concurrent activation of the visual and motor cortex at 1.5 T in a larger sample of 21 healthy volunteers. The experiment was repeated using two different TE values (50 and 70 ms) in counterbalanced order. Furthermore, T2* measurements of the gray matter were performed. Results indicated that both peak beta value and number of voxels were significantly higher using TE = 70 than TE = 50 ms in primary motor, primary somatosensory and supplementary motor cortices (p < 0.007). In addition, the amplitude of activation in visual cortices and the dorsal premotor area was also higher using TE = 70 ms (p < 0.001). Gray matter T2* of the corresponding areas did not vary significantly. In conclusion, the optimal TE value (among the two studied) for visual and motor activity is 70 ms affecting both the amplitude and extent of regional hemodynamic activation. View Full-Text
Keywords: MR imaging; T2* measurement; echo time; BOLD; fMRI/visual activation; fMRI/motor activation MR imaging; T2* measurement; echo time; BOLD; fMRI/visual activation; fMRI/motor activation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Boursianis, T.; Kalaitzakis, G.; Nikiforaki, K.; Kosteletou, E.; Antypa, D.; Gourzoulidis, G.A.; Karantanas, A.; Papadaki, E.; Simos, P.; Maris, T.G.; Marias, K. The Significance of Echo Time in fMRI BOLD Contrast: A Clinical Study during Motor and Visual Activation Tasks at 1.5 T. Tomography 2021, 7, 333-343. https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7030030

AMA Style

Boursianis T, Kalaitzakis G, Nikiforaki K, Kosteletou E, Antypa D, Gourzoulidis GA, Karantanas A, Papadaki E, Simos P, Maris TG, Marias K. The Significance of Echo Time in fMRI BOLD Contrast: A Clinical Study during Motor and Visual Activation Tasks at 1.5 T. Tomography. 2021; 7(3):333-343. https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7030030

Chicago/Turabian Style

Boursianis, Themistoklis, Georgios Kalaitzakis, Katerina Nikiforaki, Emmanouela Kosteletou, Despina Antypa, George A. Gourzoulidis, Apostolos Karantanas, Efrosini Papadaki, Panagiotis Simos, Thomas G. Maris, and Kostas Marias. 2021. "The Significance of Echo Time in fMRI BOLD Contrast: A Clinical Study during Motor and Visual Activation Tasks at 1.5 T" Tomography 7, no. 3: 333-343. https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7030030

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