Assessment of Motor Dysfunction with Virtual Reality in Patients Undergoing [123I]FP-CIT SPECT/CT Brain Imaging
Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Department of Neuroimaging and Neurointervention, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Department of Physics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Department of Neurology, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Brian D. Ross
Tomography 2021, 7(2), 95-106; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography7020009
Received: 26 February 2021 / Revised: 23 March 2021 / Accepted: 23 March 2021 / Published: 26 March 2021
[123I]FP-CIT SPECT has been valuable for distinguishing Parkinson disease (PD) from essential tremor. However, its performance for quantitative assessment of motor dysfunction has not been established. A virtual reality (VR) application was developed and compared with [123I]FP-CIT SPECT/CT for detection of severity of motor dysfunction. Forty-four patients (21 males, 23 females, age 64.5 ± 12.4) with abnormal [123I]FP-CIT SPECT/CT underwent assessment of bradykinesia, activities of daily living, and tremor with VR. Support vector machines (SVM) machine learning models were applied to VR and SPECT data. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated greater area under the curve (AUC) for VR (0.8418, 95% CI 0.6071–0.9617) compared with brain SPECT (0.5357, 95% CI 0.3373–0.7357, p = 0.029) for detection of motor dysfunction. Logistic regression identified VR as an independent predictor of motor dysfunction (Odds Ratio 326.4, SE 2.17, p = 0.008). SVM for prediction of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III) demonstrated greater R-squared of 0.713 (p = 0.008) for VR, compared with 0.0764 (p = 0.361) for brain SPECT. This study demonstrates that VR can be safely used in patients prior to [123I]FP-CIT SPECT imaging and may improve prediction of motor dysfunction. This test has the potential to provide a simple, objective, quantitative analysis of motor symptoms in PD patients.