Next Article in Journal
Tracking and Linking of Microparticle Trajectories During Mode-Coupling Induced Melting in a Two-Dimensional Complex Plasma Crystal
Previous Article in Journal
Image Registration with Particles, Examplified with the Complex Plasma Laboratory PK-4 on Board the International Space Station
Previous Article in Special Issue
Analysis of Image Feature Characteristics for Automated Scoring of HER2 in Histology Slides
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
J. Imaging 2019, 5(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging5030040

Visualisation and Analysis of Speech Production with Electropalatography

1
School of Health Sciences, Division of Language & Communication Science, Phonetics Laboratory, University of London, London EC1V 0HB, UK
2
Department of Linguistics CLIPS, University of Antwerp, 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
3
Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery, ZNA Middelheim General Hospital, B2020 Antwerp, Belgium
4
School of Mathematics, Computer Science and Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, Research Centre in Biomedical Engineering, University of London, London EC1V 0HB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 9 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Image Understanding and Analysis 2018)
Full-Text   |   PDF [15105 KB, uploaded 15 March 2019]   |  

Abstract

The process of speech production, i.e., the compression of air in the lungs, the vibration activity of the larynx, and the movement of the articulators, is of great interest in phonetics, phonology, and psychology. One technique by which speech production is analysed is electropalatography, in which an artificial palate, moulded to the speaker’s hard palate, is introduced in the mouth. The palate contains a grid of electrodes, which monitor the spatial and temporal pattern of contact between the tongue and the palate during speech production. The output is a time sequence of images, known as palatograms, which show the 2D distribution of electrode activation. This paper describes a series of tools for the visualisation and analysis of palatograms and their associated sound signals. The tools are developed as Matlab® routines and released as an open-source toolbox. The particular focus is the analysis of the amount and direction of left–right asymmetry in tongue–palate contact during the production of different speech sounds. Asymmetry in the articulation of speech, as measured by electropalatography, may be related to the language under consideration, the speaker’s anatomy, irregularities in the palate manufacture, or speaker handedness (i.e., left or right). In addition, a pipeline for the segmentation and analysis of a three-dimensional computed tomography data set of an artificial palate is described and demonstrated. The segmentation procedure provides quantitative information about asymmetry that is due to a combination of speaker anatomy (the shape of the hard palate) and the positioning of the electrodes during manufacture of the artificial palate. The tools provided here should be useful in future studies of electropalatography. View Full-Text
Keywords: computed tomography; segmentation; speech production; electropalatography; spectrograms; articulation asymmetry computed tomography; segmentation; speech production; electropalatography; spectrograms; articulation asymmetry
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Verhoeven, J.; Miller, N.R.; Daems, L.; Reyes-Aldasoro, C.C. Visualisation and Analysis of Speech Production with Electropalatography. J. Imaging 2019, 5, 40.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Imaging EISSN 2313-433X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top