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J. Imaging 2018, 4(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging4040058

Non-Destructive Testing of Archaeological Findings by Grating-Based X-Ray Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging

1
Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erwin-Rommel-Strasse 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
2
Bayerisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege, Dienststelle Bamberg, Schloss Seehof 1, 96117 Memmelsdorf, Germany
3
Deutsches Ledermuseum Offenbach, Frankfurter Straße 86, 63067 Offenbach, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 14 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging)
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Abstract

The analysis of archaeological findings reveals the remaining secrets of human history. However, it is a challenging task to investigate and simultaneously preserve the unique remains. Available non-destructive examination methods are limited and often insufficient. Thus, we considered X-ray grating interferometry as a non-destructive and advanced X-ray imaging method to retrieve more information about archaeological findings. In addition to the conventional attenuation image, the differential phase and the dark-field image are obtained. We studied the potential of the scattering-sensitive dark-field and the phase-shift sensitive differential phase image to analyse archaeological findings. Hereby, the focus lies on organic remnants. Usually, the organic materials have vanished due to decomposition processes, but the structures are often preserved by mineralisation and penetration of corrosion products. We proved that the combination of the attenuation and the dark-field image in particular, enables a separation of structural properties for fabric remnants. Furthermore, we achieved promising results for the reconstruction of sub-pixel sized fibre orientations of woven fabric remnants by employing the directional dark-field imaging method. We conclude from our results that a further application of X-ray dark-field imaging on wet organic findings and on the distinction of different types of organic remnants at archaeological findings is promising. View Full-Text
Keywords: archaeological findings; non-destructive materials testing; X-ray phase-contrast imaging; Talbot-Lau interferometry; directional dark-field imaging; sub-pixel fibre orientation; organic remnants; fabric remnants archaeological findings; non-destructive materials testing; X-ray phase-contrast imaging; Talbot-Lau interferometry; directional dark-field imaging; sub-pixel fibre orientation; organic remnants; fabric remnants
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ludwig, V.; Seifert, M.; Niepold, T.; Pelzer, G.; Rieger, J.; Ziegler, J.; Michel, T.; Anton, G. Non-Destructive Testing of Archaeological Findings by Grating-Based X-Ray Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging. J. Imaging 2018, 4, 58.

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