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J. Imaging 2018, 4(11), 135;

3D Printing Endobronchial Models for Surgical Training and Simulation

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
Center for Interventional Oncology, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, NIH Clinical Center, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, & National Cancer Institute Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
3T Technologies Limited Liability Company (LLC), GA 30067, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 September 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image-Guided Medical Robotics)
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Many methods and devices help acquire more accurate clinical and localization information during lung interventions and may impact the death rate for lung cancer. However, there is a learning curve for operating these tools due to the complex structure of the airway. In this study, we first discuss the creation of a lung phantom model from medical images, which is followed by a comparison of 3D printing in terms of quality and consistency. Two tests were conducted to test the performance of the developed phantom, which was designed for training simulations of the target and ablation processes in endochonchial interventions. The target test was conducted through an electromagnetic tracking catheter with navigation software. An ablation catheter with a recently developed thermochromic ablation gel conducted the ablation test. The results of two tests show that the phantom was very useful for target and ablation simulation. In addition, the thermochromic gel allowed doctors to visualize the ablation zone. Many lung interventions may benefit from custom training or accuracy with the proposed low-cost and patient-specific phantom. View Full-Text
Keywords: lung phantom; 3D printing; training and simulation; lung interventions lung phantom; 3D printing; training and simulation; lung interventions

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Zhao, Z.; Xu, S.; Wood, B.J.; Tse, Z.T.H. 3D Printing Endobronchial Models for Surgical Training and Simulation. J. Imaging 2018, 4, 135.

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