# A Review of DC Fast Chargers with BESS for Electric Vehicles: Topology, Battery, Reliability Oriented Control and Cooling Perspectives

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Architectures and Topologies

#### 2.1. Variable DC-Bus

#### 2.2. Constant DC-Bus

#### 2.3. AC/DC Conversion Stage Topologies

#### 2.4. DC/DC Topologies

#### 2.4.1. Isolated DC/DC Converters

#### 2.4.2. Non-Isolated DC/DC Converters

## 3. Battery Types

## 4. Failure Mechanism and Design for Reliability

#### 4.1. Failure Mechanism

#### 4.2. Design for Reliability

#### 4.3. Condition Monitoring and Health Maintenance

#### Junction Temperature Estimation Methods

## 5. Control Methods for DC-Fast Chargers with BESS

#### 5.1. Low-Level Control

#### 5.1.1. AC/DC Rectifier/Inverter Low-Level Control Methods

#### 5.1.2. DC/DC Converter Low-Level Control Methods

- 1.
- DAB Converter:The DAB converter is an isolated, bidirectional topology with a low number of passive elements. The power flow direction and magnitude are controlled by the phase difference between the primary and secondary side AC voltages with the leakage inductance as the power transfer element. The most common control method is the single phase shift control (SPS) whose power equation is given in Equation (4) where P is the transferred power, ${V}_{p}{V}_{s}$ are fundamental components of primary and secondary voltages, $\theta $ is the phase difference, $\omega $ is the angular frequency and L is the leakage inductance. An important aspect of Equation (4) is that if $\theta $ is negative, the power flow can be achieved in the opposite direction.$$P={\displaystyle \frac{{V}_{p}{V}_{s}sin\left(\theta \right)}{\omega L}}$$In SPS control, the primary side legs are always inversely operated and theoretically, the power flow can be achieved between ${P}_{\theta}={90}^{\circ}$ and zero. Moreover, the DAB converter can achieve soft switching on both sides during its operation which significantly increases the efficiency and reduces EMI and converter size. However, soft switching is only achieved for certain power levels and voltage transfer ratios. A way to increase the range of soft switching is to increase the leakage inductance but it also increases the current stress on the switches due to higher circulating current. In order to increase the light-load efficiency for a wider voltage transfer ratio, other phase shift methods such as double phase shift (DPS) or triple phase shift (TPS) are presented. By optimizing both the internal phase shifts and the voltage phase shifts, it is possible to improve efficiency, improve voltage gain, and lower transformer loss. In [155], the asymmetric phase shift (APS) method is presented and the light load efficiency is improved significantly. In [156], the double band peak current control method is used to improve the light-load efficiency by extending the ZVS range. This method limits the switching current by indirectly changing the switching frequency. In [32], modulation schemes were investigated for a 5-level DAB converter for Ultra-Wide input voltage range applications.
- 2.
- CLLC Converter:Compared to the DAB converter, CLLC converters have a wide output voltage range with an improved light load efficiency due to ZVS operation. In [53], dead-band control with soft-starting capability is presented. In [157], a sliding mode control method is proposed and it is said that the settling time is 0.9 ms shorter than conventional PI control strategies where the SMC settles in 1 ms. In [158], extended phase shift control (EPS) is presented and said to be superior to the pulse frequency modulation method in light loading conditions. In [159], a synchronous rectification (SR) scheme is presented resulting in a reduction in conduction losses by using a MOSFET channel instead of lossy body diodes. It is said that SR is especially critical for SiC applications since the body-diode of SiC MOSFET has a significant voltage drop across its junction.
- 3.
- LLC Converter:Similar to CLLC converters, LLC converters are often controlled by changing the frequency or changing the phase shift or using a combination of both methods [160]. By changing the frequency the reflected impedance is controlled [161] and by changing the phase-shift the power flow is controlled and governed by the same equation presented in Equation (4). However, a downside of the LLC converter is the light load efficiency due to increased switching frequency. To solve the issue magnetic control methods are presented in [162]. The main idea in all magnetic control methods is to intentionally saturate the external leakage inductance to achieve higher light-load efficiencies [163]. This method is similar to phase shift control since instead of changing the phase difference the inductance is changed in Equation (4). In [164], a secondary side phase-shift method is presented, and compared to frequency control, the nominal efficiency is increased and the circulating current is decreased. In [165], an asymmetric duty cycle control is proposed and it is said to decrease the resonant current and the conduction losses of the semiconductors compared to frequency control. In [166], a hybrid PWM and pulse frequency modulation (PFM) is given. Compared to the conventional PFM method, it decreased the current spikes and enhanced output voltage regulation.

#### 5.1.3. Low-Level Reliability Oriented Control Methods

- 1.
- Output Power ControlIn this approach, in case of any increment in junction temperature and its fluctuation, the PEC starts decreasing processing power. However, in the normal case, PEC can deliver rated power while ATC does not have any impact on normal operation [167,168]. Moreover, in PV application, by manipulating the MPPT procedure, the junction temperature of the semiconductors can be controlled [169].
- 2.
- Cooling SystemIn this method, by manipulating cooling effort (i.e., cooling liquid flow rate, fan speed), the junction temperature is controlled [170,171,172]. In [170,171], both feed-forward and closed-loop controllers are used to increase the dynamic response of the system and minimize the temperature variation. Moreover, the ambient temperature in addition to power losses is considered for controlling the cooling system. In [172], by producing a thermal model and tuning the control system around it, junction temperature can be adjusted.
- 3.
- Switching Frequency ControlIn this approach for reducing junction temperature swings and also controlling its mean and maximum value, the switching frequency of PECs is manipulated. Basically, switching frequency changes are associated with switching loss change. To smooth temperature swings, switching frequency should be increased resulting in decreasing efficiency [123,167,173,174,175,176]. However, by using the new generation of power semiconductors such as WBG, efficiency reduction will be less in comparison with normal Si-based semiconductors [177]. Moreover, for controlling mean and maximum value, switching frequency should be decreased [167,178,179,180,181] to reduce losses in the semiconductors. However, due to the dependency of passive components on switching frequency which results in overdesign issues, this approach might not be practical.
- 4.
- Modulation StrategyIn [182], by utilizing reactive power circulation between paralleled PECs, temperature fluctuation can be smoothed. In [183], using the condition monitoring program and estimating the remaining useful lifetime of the semiconductors, to increase the lifetime, other paralleled PECs will be requested to process more power. Authors in [184,185,186], implemented new space vector modulation strategies in 3-level neutral clamped PECs to change thermal distribution among power modules and thus manipulate thermal loading. In [187], via applying carrier-based modulation and redundant switching states, thermal stress can be reduced while healthy semiconductors will not experience more stress and pressure. In [188,189], by utilizing discontinuous modulation (DPWM), switching losses are decreased, and thus, thermal stress can be controlled. In [190], by switching between space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and DPWM strategies in addition to manipulating switching frequency, power dissipation and consequently thermal stress are reduced.
- 5.
- Active Gate Drive ControlControlling gate-drive circuits is one of the hopeful methods for implementing active thermal control. The goal of this method is modifying conduction and switching power losses through controlling the turn ON and turn OFF transition and also the ON-state voltage of MOSFET/ IGBT [191]. In [192], multi-level gate-drive can smooth junction temperature fluctuation by forcing power semiconductors to work in the saturation region. In [177], a two-step gate-driver was proposed which can control rise/fall time during switching instants in GaN HEMTs. Moreover, it was shown that the proposed approach has impacts on conduction losses in case the switching transition exceeds a certain duration. In [193,194,195,196], Wang et al. proposed an ATC method that can impact conduction losses by manipulating gate voltage and consequently drain-source resistance. However, in low gate voltage, the switch might get damaged because of a thermal runaway that can limit its applicability in a vast range of gate voltage. Moreover, in [197], a variable gate voltage methodology was employed to impact switching losses and smooth junction temperature fluctuations. In [198], by using a resistor network and switching between them, the ON/OFF switching transition can be modified according to the output load. In [199], authors could modulate switching losses via employing adaptive gate-drive in addition to controlling switching frequency. Adaptive gate drive can be implemented by changing effective gate resistance. The authors in [200], by using the gate voltage variation method and gate resistance manipulation instantaneously and also measuring junction temperature and making a comparison with the reference value, could modify switching losses and thus control junction temperature variations.

#### 5.2. System-Level Reliability Oriented Control

## 6. Power Electronics and Battery Cooling Methods

#### 6.1. Power Electronics Cooling Methods

#### 6.2. Stationary and EV Battery Cooling Methods

#### 6.2.1. State-of-the-Art Cooling Methods for Local BESS and EV Batteries

#### 6.2.2. Smart Pre-Conditioning Methods for Battery Charging for Improved Lifetime

- The development of advanced algorithms and machine learning techniques for predicting and optimizing the charging process, in order to minimize stress on the battery and maximize its capacity and longevity [244].
- The development of improved understanding of the effects of different charging protocols, such as the constant current/constant voltage (CC/CV) charging, pulse charging, and others, on the performance and lifetime of the battery [245].
- Studying the interactions between different factors that affect battery charging, such as temperature, state of charge, and charging rate, in order to develop more sophisticated models and algorithms for optimizing the charging process [246].
- Testing and evaluating smart pre-conditioning in different battery chemistries and applications, such as lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles, stationary energy storage systems, and portable electronic devices.
- Integrating smart pre-conditioning into commercial battery charging systems, in order to demonstrate its benefits and potential for real-world applications.

## 7. Conclusions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

AFE | Active Front End |

APS | Asymmetric Phase Shift |

ATC | Active Thermal Control |

BESS | Battery Energy Storage System |

CAPEX | Capital Expenditure |

CPC | Compensated Proportional Controller |

CTE | Coefficient of Thermal Expansion |

DAB | Dual Active Bridge |

DBC | Direct Bonded Copper |

DfR | Design for Reliability |

DoD | Depth of Discharge |

DPS | Double Phase Shift |

DPWM | Discontinuous PWM |

EMI | Electro-Magnetic Interference |

EoL | End of Life |

EPS | Extended Phase Shift |

ESS | Energy Storage System |

EV | Electric Vehicle |

FC | Flying Capacitor |

G2V | Grid to Vehicle |

GaN | Gallium Nitrate |

HEMT | High Electron Mobility Transistor |

ICEV | Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle |

LiB | Lithium-ion Battery |

MPPT | Maximum Power Point Tracker |

MTBF | Mean Time between Failure |

MTTF | Mean Time to Failure |

NPC | Neutral Point Clamped |

NTC | Negative Temperature Coefficient |

OEM | Original Equipment Manufacturer |

OPEX | Operational Expenditure |

PCM | Phase Change Material |

PCS | Phase Change Slurry |

PEC | Power Electronics Converter |

PFC | Power Factor Corrector |

PFM | Pulse Frequency Modulation |

PHM | Prognostics and Health Management |

PI | Proportional Integral |

PLL | Phase Locked Loop |

RMS | Root Mean Square |

RUL | Remaining Useful Life |

SiC | Silicon Carbide |

SLB | Second Life Battery |

SMC | Sliding Mode Controller |

SoC | State of Charge |

SoH | State of Health |

SPS | Single Phase Shift |

SR | Synchronous Rectification |

SVPWM | Space Vector PWM |

TDDB | Time Dependent Dielectric Breakdown |

THD | Total Harmonic Distortion |

TPS | Triple Phase Shift |

TSEP | Temperature Sensitive Electrical Parameter |

V2G | Vehicle to Grid |

WBG | Wide Band Gap |

ZCS | Zero Current Switching |

ZVS | Zero Voltage Switching |

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**Figure 1.**A common duck curve in California, USA [8].

**Figure 2.**A representation of grid-connected DC-Fast charger with local BESS. Light blue arrows show the direction of the active power flow when EV is connected. Light orange arrow shows the direction of active power flow when EV charging is finished.

**Figure 3.**Architecture of a DC-Fast charger with BESS for different cases. Not all cases are compatible with each other.

**Figure 4.**Different AC/DC conversion topologies connected to a three-phase AC grid. Grid drawings are omitted for visual clarity: (

**a**) Two-level active front end (AFE); (

**b**) Three-level neutral point clamped (NPC) AFE; (

**c**) Three-level T-type AFE; (

**d**) Vienna rectifier; (

**e**) Swiss rectifier; (

**f**) Matrix Converter-based isolated AC/DC converter [34].

**Figure 5.**Isolated DC/DC converters. The secondary side of 3-level FC-DAB and NPC-DAB are omitted due to visual clarity. Similar structure as in (

**c**,

**d**) or (

**a**) can be used to rectify the AC voltage during grid-to-vehicle (G2V) operation: (

**a**) Dual Active Bridge (DAB); (

**b**) CLLC converter; (

**c**) 3-level flying capacitor(FC) DAB; (

**d**) 3-level NPC-DAB; (

**e**) LLC converter.

**Figure 6.**Non-isolated DC/DC converters: (

**a**) Conventional buck converter; (

**b**) Interleaved buck converter; (

**c**) 3-level NPC buck converter; (

**d**) 3-level FC buck converter; (

**e**) Non-inverting buck-boost converter.

**Figure 8.**Estimated SLB from passenger car supply and utility demand change between 2020–2030 [79].

**Figure 10.**Decoupled current control for boost type active rectifier/inverters. The T-type inverter is given as an example. It can be any boost-type inverter.

**Figure 11.**PWM control strategy for Swiss rectifier, edited from [151].

**Figure 12.**Different cooling methods for PE cooling [235].

**Figure 13.**Type of cooling used in the commercially available industrial EV DC-fast charger systems.

Manufacturer | ABB Terra HP [24] | ABB Terra 54 [25] | Siemens VersiCharge Ultra 175 [26] | EVBox Troniq Modular [27] | Tesla SuperCharger [28] | Heliox Rapid 50–300 kW [29] |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Power | up to 350 kW | 50 kW | 175 kW | up to 240 kW | 135 kW | up to 300 kW |

Input Voltage | 400 VAC | 480 VAC | 380–480 VAC | 400 VAC | 380–480 VAC | 400 VAC |

Output Voltage | 150–920 VDC | 200–500 VDC | 200–920 VDC | 150–920 VDC | 40–410 V | 150–500 VDC |

Multiport | Yes | Yes | Yes | Yes | Yes | Yes |

Efficiency | 95% | 94% | 96% | 95% | 91% | >94% |

Time to add 100 km | <3 min @350 kW | N.P. | <6 min @175 kW | <4.5 min @240 kW | <11 min @135 kW | <4 min @300 kW |

**Table 2.**Comparison of AC/DC Topologies. The excelling topology for the specific feature is colored green: best, red: worst.

Topology | Type | #of Switch | Power Direction | Isolation | Semiconductor VoltageStress | Filter Size | Power Density | Control |

2-Level AFE | Boost | 6 Active + 0 Passive | Bi-directional | No | Vdc | Large | Low | Simple |

3-Level NPC AFE | Boost | 12 Active + 6 Passive | Bi-directional | No | Vdc/2 | Small | High | Moderate |

T-Type AFE | Boost | 12 Active + 0 Passive | Bi-directional | No | Vdc, Vdc/2 | Small | High | Moderate |

Vienna Rectifier | Boost | 6 Active + 6 Passive | Uni-directional | No | Vdc, Vdc/2 | Small | High | Moderate |

Swiss Rectifier | Buck | 8 Active + 8 Passive | Uni-directional | No | Vdc, Vdc/2 | Smallest | High | Complex |

Matrix Converter | Variable | 16 Active + 0 Passive | Bi-directional | Yes | Variable | Variable | Highest | Complex |

LFP | NMC | LTO | LMO | NCA | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Specific Energy (Wh/kg) | 90–120 | 150–220 | 50–80 | 100–150 | 100–170 |

Specific Power (mAh/g) | 200–1200 | 110–340 | 3000–5100 | 110–340 | 110–200 |

Nominal Voltage (V) | 3.3 | 3.6 | 2.2 | 3.8 | 3.6 |

Cost (€)/kWh | 260 | 200 | 500 | - | 166 |

Cycle-Life at 80% DoD and $25{\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}}^{\circ}$C | 2000–10,000 | 3000–7000 | 2000–14,000 | 300–700 | 2000–3000 |

C-rate (Charge-Discharge) | 1/1 | 0.7–1/2 | 1/10 | 0.7–1/1 | 0.7–1/1 |

OEM | Service Provider | EV Model | Capacity | Application | Country |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Daimler | GETEC | Smart | 13 MWh | Renewable | Germany |

Nissan | - | Leaf | 400 kWh/600 kWh | Renewable | Japan |

Mitsubishi & PSA | EDF & Forsee Power | Peugeot Ion | N/A | Renewable | France |

BMW | UC San Diego | Mini-E | 160 kWh/100 kWh | Renewable | USA |

BMW | Vattenfall&Bosch | ActiveE & i3 | 2.8 MWh/2 MWh | Renewable | Germany |

BMW | Vattenfall | i3 | 12 kWh/50 kWh | Fast Charging | Germany |

Renault | Connected Energy | Zoe | 50 kWh | Fast Charging | UK |

Failure Model | Failure Site | Equation | Variables | Authors |
---|---|---|---|---|

Coffin-Manson | Bond-wire | ${N}_{f}=\alpha \times {(\Delta T)}^{-n}$ | $\Delta T$ | [105] |

Coffin-Manson-Arrhenius | Bond-wire | ${N}_{f}=\alpha \times {(\Delta T)}^{-n}\times {e}^{{\displaystyle \frac{{E}_{a}}{k{T}_{m}}}}$ | $\Delta {T}_{J},{T}_{m}$ | [106] |

Norris-Landzberg | Solder | ${N}_{f}=A\times {f}^{{n}_{2}}\times {(\Delta T)}^{-{n}_{1}}\times {e}^{{\displaystyle \frac{{E}_{a}}{k{T}_{m}}}}$ | $\Delta {T}_{j},{T}_{m},f$ | [86] |

Bayerer | Bond-wire | ${N}_{f}=k\times (\Delta {T}_{j}){B}_{1}\times {e}^{{\displaystyle \frac{{B}_{2}}{{T}_{j,max}}}}\times {t}_{on}^{{B}_{3}}\times {I}^{{B}_{4}}\times {V}^{{B}_{5}}\times {D}^{{B}_{6}}$ | $\Delta {T}_{j},{T}_{j,max},{t}_{on},I,V,D$ | [107] |

SEMIKRON | Bond-wire | ${N}_{f}={A}_{0}\times {A}_{1}^{B}\times (\Delta {T}_{j})-B\times {(\Delta {T}_{j})}^{\alpha}\times {\left({a}_{r}\right)}^{{B}_{1}\Delta {T}_{j}+{B}_{0}}\times \left({\displaystyle \frac{C+{\left({t}_{on}\right)}^{\gamma}}{C+{2}^{\gamma}}}\right)\times {e}^{{\displaystyle \frac{{E}_{a}}{k{T}_{m}}}}$ | $\Delta {T}_{j},{t}_{on},{T}_{m}$ | [108] |

TSEP | Device | Reference |
---|---|---|

Gate resistance | MOSFET/IGBT | [201,202,203] |

Threshold voltage | MOSFET/IGBT | [204,205,206,207] |

Turn-ON/OFF delay | MOSFET/IGBT | [208,209,210,211,212,213,214] |

Rise time | MOSFET/IGBT | [212,213,214,215] |

Gate drive peak current | MOSFET | [216] |

Drain-source resistance | MOSFET | [217,218,219] |

Miller capacitance | MOSFET | [220] |

Advantages | Disadvantages | |
---|---|---|

Air Cooling | • Low cost • Does not need additional equipment like heat-exchanger, pump,.. • Active control of fans allow control of junction temperature | • Performance depends on the environment. • Requires CFD analysis for complex systems. • Can be bulky for high-power applications. • Harder to achieve high IP ratings due to polluted air. • High operation noise. • Fan reliability effects the overall lifetime. |

Liquid Cooling | • Higher efficiency • Heat removal from enclosed system is easier • Less space and lighter system • Low operation noise | • Requires CFD analysis for proper channel design • Required pumps, heat exchanger ext. |

Thermal Control Using Air | Thermal Control Using Liquid | |
---|---|---|

Advantages | Waste heat released to air No separate cooling loop No leakage concern No electrical short-circuit due to leakage Simple design and lower cost Easier to maintain | Pack temperature is more uniform and thermally stable Good heat transfer capability Better thermal control Lower pumping power Lower volume Compact design |

Disadvantages | Low heat transfer capability More temperature variation in the pack Might influence cabin temperature Potential of venting battery gas to cabin High blower power Blower fan noise | Additional components Higher weight Liquid conductivity can lead to isolation loss Leakage potential Higher maintenance Higher cost |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Polat, H.; Hosseinabadi, F.; Hasan, M.M.; Chakraborty, S.; Geury, T.; El Baghdadi, M.; Wilkins, S.; Hegazy, O.
A Review of DC Fast Chargers with BESS for Electric Vehicles: Topology, Battery, Reliability Oriented Control and Cooling Perspectives. *Batteries* **2023**, *9*, 121.
https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9020121

**AMA Style**

Polat H, Hosseinabadi F, Hasan MM, Chakraborty S, Geury T, El Baghdadi M, Wilkins S, Hegazy O.
A Review of DC Fast Chargers with BESS for Electric Vehicles: Topology, Battery, Reliability Oriented Control and Cooling Perspectives. *Batteries*. 2023; 9(2):121.
https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9020121

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Polat, Hakan, Farzad Hosseinabadi, Md. Mahamudul Hasan, Sajib Chakraborty, Thomas Geury, Mohamed El Baghdadi, Steven Wilkins, and Omar Hegazy.
2023. "A Review of DC Fast Chargers with BESS for Electric Vehicles: Topology, Battery, Reliability Oriented Control and Cooling Perspectives" *Batteries* 9, no. 2: 121.
https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9020121