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Open AccessArticle

Model-Based Investigation of Porosity Profiles in Graphite Anodes Regarding Sudden-Death and Second-Life of Lithium Ion Cells

1
Electrical Energy Storage Systems, Institute for Photovoltaics, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 47, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
2
Robert Bosch GmbH, Product Area Battery, Kruppstrasse 20, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in Progress in Industrial Mathematics at ECMI 2018.
Batteries 2019, 5(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5020049
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
The second-life concept helps to reduce the cost for electric vehicles by adding monetary value to disused automotive batteries. However, the sudden-death effect, a change in ageing behaviour limits the total lifetime and might reduce the second-life timespan. In this paper, we utilize a common pseudo two-dimensional (P2D) cell model to investigate the influence of different porosity profiles in the graphite electrode on the battery’s ageing. Ageing is modeled by two irreversible side reactions at the anode, the formation of solid electrolyte interface (SEI) and lithium plating. We use parameters of a high-energy cell with thick electrodes. A constant initial anode porosity as a reference is compared with two optimized porosity profiles. Simulation results show that by using a layered anode, a two-stage porosity profile with higher porosity at the separator side, the cycle count until sudden-death and especially the cycles for second-life applications can both almost be doubled. View Full-Text
Keywords: Li-ion cells; ageing-induced lithium plating; sudden-death; second-life; modelling; porosity profiles; graded porosity; graphite anode Li-ion cells; ageing-induced lithium plating; sudden-death; second-life; modelling; porosity profiles; graded porosity; graphite anode
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Müller, D.; Dufaux, T.; Birke, K.P. Model-Based Investigation of Porosity Profiles in Graphite Anodes Regarding Sudden-Death and Second-Life of Lithium Ion Cells. Batteries 2019, 5, 49.

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