- freely available
Batteries 2016, 2(1), 5; doi:10.3390/batteries2010005
Abstract: Lithium ion batteries play an increasing role in everyday life, giving power to handheld devices or being used in stationary storage solutions. Especially for medium or large scale solutions, the latter application confines a huge amount of energy within a small volume; however, increasing the hazard potential far above the common level. Furthermore, as the safety hazards of lithium ion cells have been known for years, impressively shown by several burning cars or laptops, the need for a further enhancement of the safety of these systems is rising. This manuscript presents measurements of the gas emission from lithium ion batteries in case of a malfunction for different scenarios, showing a large variety of species with mostly toxic to highly toxic properties. The measurements were carried out using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS), photoacoustic spectroscopy, and chemical analysis. It is shown that the inflammation of a cell can be overcome, also preventing a cascading effect to neighboring cells, but giving rise to worse toxic gas emission. Furthermore, a filtration concept is presented that decreases the concentration of the emitted components significantly and promises filtration below immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) equivalent levels.
2.1. Measurement Setup
- Catching fire: a single bare lithium ion cell is mounted within the barrel. The barrel is shut partly by a cover, which prevents the barrel from explosion but retains most of the emission gases. PTFE tubing leads the gas mixture to the analytics.
- Fire prevention: conducted as Experiment 1, the cell under test is, additionally, wrapped within a specially-developed textile composite structure which is gas permeable but prevents flying sparks (FlotreX S500, Knein Technische Textilien GmbH, Herzogenrath-Merkstein, Germany). This cover material is made out of three layers: a fiberglass mesh, a finely-pored pure glass fleece, and a knitted fabric made of stainless steel-reinforced para-aramid fibers. Video “Experimental Setup Scenario 2” in Supplementary Materials presenting this particular experimental setup is available in the online version.
- Gas filtration: the experiment, as described under 2 is repeated using a tightly sealed barrel with a gas filtration unit mounted on top. The unit consists of five different stages: a particle filtration grid, three pellet layers of 18 dm3 activated charcoal, 9 dm3 potassium permanganate and 9 dm3 activated alumina, as well as a fine particle filter (CCP 610/210/510, SF 14, Viledon Freudenberg, Weinheim, Germany) (Figure 2). A gas bag is used to collect all gas emission behind the filtration; the PTFE tubing is inserted into this bag.
2.2. Analytical Methods
2.2.1. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
2.2.2. Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry
2.2.3. HF Determination via Ion Chromatography
2.2.4. Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy
3. Results and Discussion
Conflicts of Interest
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|Substance||Hazards according to EU Regulation (EG) Act 1272/2008|
|EMC||Eye irritation; flammable liquid; H226; H315; H319; H335; Skin irritation, specific target organ toxicity-single exposure.|
|DEC||Eye irritation; flammable liquid; H226; H315; H319; H335; skin irritation; specific target organ toxicity-single exposure.|
|EC||Eye irritation; H315; H319; H335; skin irritation; specific target organ toxicity-single exposure.|
|Benzene||Aspiration hazard; carcinogenicity; eye irritation; H225; H304; H315; H319; H340; H350; H372; germ cell mutagenicity.|
|Toluene||Aspiration hazard; flammable liquid; H225; H304; H315; H336; H361d; H373; reproductive toxicity; skin irritation; specific target organ toxicity-repeated exposure.|
|Styrene||Acute toxicity; eye irritation; flammable liquid.; H226; H315; H319; H332; H361d; H372; Skin irritation; Specific target organ toxicity-repeated exposure.|
|Biphenyl||Aquatic acute toxicity; aquatic chronic toxicity; eye irritation; H315; H319; H335; H400; H410.|
|Acrolein||Acute toxicity; aquatic acute toxicity; aquatic chronic toxicity; carcinogenicity; corrosive to the respiratory tract; eye damage; flammable liquid; H225; H300; H300 + H330; H302;H311;H314;H317;H318;H330;H341; H351; H400; H410; germ cell mutagenicity; skin corrosion; skin sensitization.|
|CO||Acute toxicity; flammable gases; H220; H280; H331; H360DM H372M gases under pressure; reproductive toxicity; specific target organ toxicity-repeated exposure.|
|COS||Acute toxicity; eye irritation; flammable gases; H220; H280; H315; H319; H331; H335; Gases under pressure.|
|Hydrogen fluoride||Acute toxicity; corrosive to the respiratory tract; H300; H310; H314; H330; skin corrosion.|
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