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Horticulturae 2017, 3(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae3040051

Monitoring of Fluorescence Characteristics of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) during the Maturation Period

1
Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
2
Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Ministry of Agriculture, Jakarta 12540, Indonesia
3
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, University of Brawijaya, Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, Indonesia
4
Department of Planning and Environment, Ehime Research Institute of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Matsuyama, Ehime 700-2405, Japan
5
Advanced Research Support Center, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Douglas D. Archbold
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 14 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
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Abstract

Monitoring the maturation process of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) by determining the soluble solids (SS) and acid content non-destructively is needed. Fluorescence components potentially offer such means of accessing fruit maturity characteristics in the orchard. The aim of this study was to determine the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy for monitoring the stage of citrus maturity. Four major fluorescent components in peel and/or flesh were found including chlorophyll-a (excitation (Ex) 410 nm, emission (Em) 675 nm) and chlorophyll-b (Ex 460 nm, Em 650 nm),polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) (Ex 260 nm and 370 nm, Em 540 nm), coumarin (Ex 330 nm, Em 400 nm), and a tryptophan-like compound (Ex 260 nm, Em 330 nm). Our results indicated a significant (R2 = 0.9554) logarithmic ratio between tryptophan-like compoundsExEm and chlorophyll-aExEm with the SS:acid ratio. Also, the log of the ratio of PMFs from the peel (ExExEm was significantly correlated with the SS:acid ratio (R2 = 0.8207). While the latter correlation was not as strong as the former, it does demonstrate the opportunity to develop a non-destructive field measurement of fluorescent peel compounds as an indirect index of fruit maturity. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluorescence; maturity index; soluble solid and acid ratio; chlorophyll-a; chlorophyll-b; polymethoxyflavones; tryptophan-like fluorescence; maturity index; soluble solid and acid ratio; chlorophyll-a; chlorophyll-b; polymethoxyflavones; tryptophan-like
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Muharfiza; Al Riza, D.F.; Saito, Y.; Itakura, K.; Kohno, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Kuramoto, M.; Kondo, N. Monitoring of Fluorescence Characteristics of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) during the Maturation Period. Horticulturae 2017, 3, 51.

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