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The Importance of Yeasts on Fermentation Quality and Human Health-Promoting Compounds

CQ-VR, Chemistry Research Centre, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), School of Life Sciences and Environment, Dep. of Biology and Environment, Enology building, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
I dedicate this small review article to my daughter, Ana Margarida, a 1st-year student of Pharmaceutical Sciences. I would like to encourage her to study these subjects in the search for more natural health-promoting compounds, of natural origin, in detrimental of “laboratory made” ones.
Fermentation 2019, 5(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5020046
Received: 19 April 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies and Their Influence in Fermentation Quality)
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Abstract

Non-Saccharomyces are important during wine fermentation once they influence wine composition. In the early stages of wine fermentation, and together with indigenous or commercial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, non-Saccharomyces are able to transform grape-must sugars into ethanol, CO2, and other important secondary metabolites. A better understanding of yeast biochemistry will allow the selection of yeast strains that have defined specific influences on fermentation efficiency, wine quality, and the production of human health-promoting compounds. Yeast metabolism produces compounds derived from tryptophan, melatonin, and serotonin, which are found in fermented beverages, such as wine and beer. Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted from the pineal gland and has a wide-ranging regulatory and neuroprotective role, while serotonin, as well as being a precursor of melatonin synthesis, is also a neurotransmitter. This review summarizes the importance of some conventional and nonconventional yeast strains’ alcoholic fermentations, especially in the production of metabolites that promote human health and thus, attract consumers attention towards fermented beverages. A brief reference is also made on fermented beverages containing probiotics, namely kombucha, also known as kombucha tea, and its interesting microorganism’s symbiotic relationships named SCOBY. View Full-Text
Keywords: Yeasts; alcoholic beverages; resveratrol; glutathione; trehalose; tryptophan; melatonin; serotonin; tyrosol; tryptophol; hydroxytyrosol; IAA; probiotics Yeasts; alcoholic beverages; resveratrol; glutathione; trehalose; tryptophan; melatonin; serotonin; tyrosol; tryptophol; hydroxytyrosol; IAA; probiotics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Vilela, A. The Importance of Yeasts on Fermentation Quality and Human Health-Promoting Compounds. Fermentation 2019, 5, 46.

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