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Impact of Wort Amino Acids on Beer Flavour: A Review

LAQV/REQUIMTE, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fermentation 2018, 4(2), 23;
Received: 3 March 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing & Distilling)
PDF [4857 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]


The process by which beer is brewed has not changed significantly since its discovery thousands of years ago. Grain is malted, dried, crushed and mixed with hot water to produce wort. Yeast is added to the sweet, viscous wort, after which fermentation occurs. The biochemical events that occur during fermentation reflect the genotype of the yeast strain used, and its phenotypic expression is influenced by the composition of the wort and the conditions established in the fermenting vessel. Although wort is complex and not completely characterized, its content in amino acids indubitably affects the production of some minor metabolic products of fermentation which contribute to the flavour of beer. These metabolic products include higher alcohols, esters, carbonyls and sulfur-containing compounds. The formation of these products is comprehensively reviewed in this paper. Furthermore, the role of amino acids in the beer flavour, in particular their relationships with flavour active compounds, is discussed in light of recent data. View Full-Text
Keywords: amino acids; beer; flavour; higher alcohols; esters; Vicinal Diketones (VDK); sulfur compounds amino acids; beer; flavour; higher alcohols; esters; Vicinal Diketones (VDK); sulfur compounds

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Ferreira, I.M.; Guido, L.F. Impact of Wort Amino Acids on Beer Flavour: A Review. Fermentation 2018, 4, 23.

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