Next Article in Journal
Anhydrous Ammonia Pretreatment of Corn Stover and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Glucan from Pretreated Corn Stover
Next Article in Special Issue
Mixed Carboxylic Acid Production by Megasphaera elsdenii from Glucose and Lignocellulosic Hydrolysate
Previous Article in Journal
Optimization of Thermo-Alkali Stable Amylase Production and Biomass Yield from Bacillus sp. Under Submerged Cultivation
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Fermentation 2017, 3(1), 8;

Recent Progress in the Microbial Production of Pyruvic Acid

Department of Food Science, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj 31587-77871, Iran
School of Chemical, Materials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gunnar Lidén
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carboxylic Acid Production)
Full-Text   |   PDF [475 KB, uploaded 13 February 2017]   |  


Pyruvic acid (pyruvate) is a cellular metabolite found at the biochemical junction of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Pyruvate is used in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and agricultural applications. Microbial production of pyruvate from either yeast or bacteria relies on restricting the natural catabolism of pyruvate, while also limiting the accumulation of the numerous potential by-products. In this review we describe research to improve pyruvate formation which has targeted both strain development and process development. Strain development requires an understanding of carbohydrate metabolism and the many competing enzymes which use pyruvate as a substrate, and it often combines classical mutation/isolation approaches with modern metabolic engineering strategies. Process development requires an understanding of operational modes and their differing effects on microbial growth and product formation. View Full-Text
Keywords: auxotrophy; Candida glabrata; Escherichia coli; fed-batch; metabolic engineering; pyruvate; pyruvate dehydrogenase auxotrophy; Candida glabrata; Escherichia coli; fed-batch; metabolic engineering; pyruvate; pyruvate dehydrogenase

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Maleki, N.; Eiteman, M.A. Recent Progress in the Microbial Production of Pyruvic Acid. Fermentation 2017, 3, 8.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Fermentation EISSN 2311-5637 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top