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Open AccessReview

Methods for the Treatment of Cattle Manure—A Review

Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Thornton Science Park, University of Chester, Chester CH2 4NU, UK
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coal, Biomass and Waste Conversion Technologies)
Environmental concerns, caused by greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere and overrunning of nutrients and pathogens to water bodies, have led to reducing direct spread onto the land of cattle manure. In addition, this practice can be a source of water and air pollution and toxicity to life by the release of undesirable heavy metals. Looking at the current practices, it is evident that most farms separate solids for recycling purposes, store slurries in large lagoons or use anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. The review explores the potential for cattle manure as an energy source due to its relatively large calorific value (HHV of 8.7–18.7 MJ/kg dry basis). This property is beneficial for thermochemical conversion processes, such as gasification and pyrolysis. This study also reviews the potential for upgrading biogas for transportation and heating use. This review discusses current cattle manure management technologies—biological treatment and thermochemical conversion processes—and the diverse physical and chemical properties due to the differences in farm practices. View Full-Text
Keywords: cattle manure; beef cattle; gasification; anaerobic digestion; biogas; biomethane cattle manure; beef cattle; gasification; anaerobic digestion; biogas; biomethane
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MDPI and ACS Style

Font-Palma, C. Methods for the Treatment of Cattle Manure—A Review. C 2019, 5, 27.

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