# Numerical Simulation of an Air-Core Vortex and Its Suppression at an Intake Using OpenFOAM

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

#### Vortex Models

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Experimental Set-Up

^{3}/s and 1.5, respectively.

#### 2.2. Numerical Approach

#### 2.2.1. Governing Equations

#### 2.2.2. OpenFOAM Application and Procedures

## 3. Results and Discussions

#### 3.1. Visualisation of the Air-Core Vortex

#### 3.2. Assessment of Different Turbulence Models

#### 3.3. Suppression of Air Entrainment Using an Anti-Vortex Device

## 4. Conclusions

- The new approach of using the LTSInterFoam solver, as highlighted in this study, proved to be a reliable means for the steady-state simulation of a free surface vortex at an intake. The LTSInterFoam solver, until now, has been associated with hydrodynamic studies involving ships. However, being a steady state solver, it is unable to account for the transient process of evolution of a free surface vortex.
- The SST $k-\omega $ model provided the best results compared to the other turbulence models.
- The approach highlighted in this study can be used to investigate the effectiveness of an anti-vortex device in suppressing the formation of an air-core vortex.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Experimental set-up by [39].

**Figure 7.**(

**a**): Comparison of results from the three different turbulence models. (

**b**): Comparison of the results from the different turbulence models with other studies.

Variable | Inlet | Outlet | Walls | Atmosphere |
---|---|---|---|---|

U | flowRateInletVelocity | flowRateInletVelocity | fixedValue | pressureInlet- OutletVelocity |

p rgh | fixedFluxPressure | zeroGradient | zeroGradient | totalPressure |

alpha.water | groovyBC | zeroGradient | zeroGradient | inletOutlet |

nut | calculated | calculated | nutkRoughWall-Function | zeroGradient |

k | fixedValue | inletOutlet | kqRWallFunction | inletOutlet |

omega | fixedValue | inletOutlet | omegaWallFunction | inletOutlet |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Domfeh, M.K.; Gyamfi, S.; Amo-Boateng, M.; Andoh, R.; Ofosu, E.A.; Tabor, G.
Numerical Simulation of an Air-Core Vortex and Its Suppression at an Intake Using OpenFOAM. *Fluids* **2020**, *5*, 221.
https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5040221

**AMA Style**

Domfeh MK, Gyamfi S, Amo-Boateng M, Andoh R, Ofosu EA, Tabor G.
Numerical Simulation of an Air-Core Vortex and Its Suppression at an Intake Using OpenFOAM. *Fluids*. 2020; 5(4):221.
https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5040221

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Domfeh, Martin Kyereh, Samuel Gyamfi, Mark Amo-Boateng, Robert Andoh, Eric Antwi Ofosu, and Gavin Tabor.
2020. "Numerical Simulation of an Air-Core Vortex and Its Suppression at an Intake Using OpenFOAM" *Fluids* 5, no. 4: 221.
https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5040221