Next Article in Journal
On the Behaviour of Living Cells under the Influence of Ultrasound
Next Article in Special Issue
A Numerical Study of the Sound and Force Production of Flexible Insect Wings
Previous Article in Journal
Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Leakage from Storage Aquifers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Genetic Algorithm Based Optimization of Wing Rotation in Hover
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Fluids 2018, 3(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids3040081

Quasi-Steady versus Navier–Stokes Solutions of Flapping Wing Aerodynamics

1
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA
2
Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, United States Military Academy at West Point, West Point, NY 10996, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 21 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-inspired Flow)
Full-Text   |   PDF [5889 KB, uploaded 24 October 2018]   |  

Abstract

Various tools have been developed to model the aerodynamics of flapping wings. In particular, quasi-steady models, which are considerably faster and easier to solve than the Navier–Stokes equations, are often utilized in the study of flight dynamics of flapping wing flyers. However, the accuracy of the quasi-steady models has not been properly documented. The objective of this study is to assess the accuracy of a quasi-steady model by comparing the resulting aerodynamic forces against three-dimensional (3D) Navier–Stokes solutions. The same wing motion is prescribed at a fruit fly scale. The pitching amplitude, axis, and duration are varied. Comparison of the aerodynamic force coefficients suggests that the quasi-steady model shows significant discrepancies under extreme pitching motions, i.e., the pitching motion is large, quick, and occurs about the leading or trailing edge. The differences are as large as 1.7 in the cycle-averaged lift coefficient. The quasi-steady model performs well when the kinematics are mild, i.e., the pitching motion is small, long, and occurs near the mid-chord with a small difference in the lift coefficient of 0.01. Our analysis suggests that the main source for the error is the inaccuracy of the rotational lift term and the inability to model the wing-wake interaction in the quasi-steady model. View Full-Text
Keywords: insect flight; flapping wing; unsteady aerodynamics; quasi-steady models; Navier–Stokes equations insect flight; flapping wing; unsteady aerodynamics; quasi-steady models; Navier–Stokes equations
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Pohly, J.A.; Salmon, J.L.; Bluman, J.E.; Nedunchezian, K.; Kang, C.-K. Quasi-Steady versus Navier–Stokes Solutions of Flapping Wing Aerodynamics. Fluids 2018, 3, 81.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Fluids EISSN 2311-5521 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top