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Article

The Manufacture and Characterization of Silver Diammine Fluoride and Silver Salt Crosslinked Nanocrystalline Cellulose Films as Novel Antibacterial Materials

1
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
2
Department of Oral Health Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
4
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Joint first authors. Contributed equally to the manuscript.
Academic Editor: Andrea Atrei
Gels 2021, 7(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels7030104
Received: 23 June 2021 / Revised: 21 July 2021 / Accepted: 22 July 2021 / Published: 27 July 2021
There is an unmet need for biocompatible, anti-infective, and mechanically strong hydrogels. This study investigated the use of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA), polysaccharides, and nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) to deliver silver in a controlled manner for possible use against oral or wound bacteria. Silver was included in solvent cast films as silver diammine fluoride (SDF) or as nitrate, sulphate, or acetate salts. Hydrogel formation was assessed by swelling determinations and silver release was measured using inductively coupled plasma methods. Antibacterial studies were performed using Gram-positive and negative bacteria turbidity assays. PVA formed homogenous, strong films with SDF and swelled gently (99% hydrolyzed) or vigorously with dissolution (88% hydrolyzed) and released silver slowly or quickly, respectively. CNC-SDF films swelled over a week and formed robust hydrogels whereas CNC alone (no silver) disintegrated after two days. SDF loaded CNC films released silver slowly over 9 days whereas films crosslinked with silver salts were less robust and swelled and released silver more quickly. All silver loaded films showed good antibacterial activity. CNC may be crosslinked with silver in the form of SDF (or any soluble silver salt) to form a robust hydrogel suitable for dental use such as for exposed periodontal debridement areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanocrystalline cellulose; silver diammine fluoride; hydrogels; antibacterial; silver; poly vinyl alcohol nanocrystalline cellulose; silver diammine fluoride; hydrogels; antibacterial; silver; poly vinyl alcohol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jackson, J.; Dietrich, C.; Shademani, A.; Manso, A. The Manufacture and Characterization of Silver Diammine Fluoride and Silver Salt Crosslinked Nanocrystalline Cellulose Films as Novel Antibacterial Materials. Gels 2021, 7, 104. https://doi.org/10.3390/gels7030104

AMA Style

Jackson J, Dietrich C, Shademani A, Manso A. The Manufacture and Characterization of Silver Diammine Fluoride and Silver Salt Crosslinked Nanocrystalline Cellulose Films as Novel Antibacterial Materials. Gels. 2021; 7(3):104. https://doi.org/10.3390/gels7030104

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jackson, John, Claudia Dietrich, Ali Shademani, and Adriana Manso. 2021. "The Manufacture and Characterization of Silver Diammine Fluoride and Silver Salt Crosslinked Nanocrystalline Cellulose Films as Novel Antibacterial Materials" Gels 7, no. 3: 104. https://doi.org/10.3390/gels7030104

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